Co-author Irina Rotenko
This yr we studied the query of wolf copy in Naliboki Forest within the space of about one thousand sq. kilometres. Within the spring of 2022, there have been current two breeding teams of wolves within the research space: a pair and an grownup male with two pregnant females. All 5 grownup wolves had been recognisable, and we knew them from the earlier years.
First about copy of the three breeding wolves. Within the late March one of many females gave beginning in a burrow-den. Within the twentieth of April there have been not less than three pups together with her (we noticed them on the burrow entrance). One other feminine gave beginning within the late April on the space round 1.8 km from the den of the primary feminine, and within the mid-Could she had 4 pups of about 3 weeks previous in her burrow-den, which we investigated. The daddy wolf served for each breeding females. They visited denning space and dens of one another. All of the three wolves had been numerically registered strolling collectively in April and Could.
Plausibly the litter of the primary feminine was extirpated by lynx grownup male, which was registered visiting the burrow-den with pups. After this go to of the lynx, the mom wolf was not registered together with her pups anymore.
Within the under footage you will notice getting ready of a number of dens by pregnant feminine wolf and 4 pups of the three breeding wolves. A complete, not less than 34 such ready dens in sorts of both a burrow or a cavity or solely a pit there have been discovered within the denning space of those three breeders. You see the 4 pups in an outlier of badgers that was enlarged by the breeding wolves. The litter was inside this burrow 4-6 days.
Within the early June there have been alive solely two out of the 4 pups (see video under), which you might even see with the mom at one other burrow-den. In November solely one of many 4 pups was nonetheless alive.
Regarding the breeding couple of wolves, they had been very early breeders. The feminine gave beginning roughly in early March and even within the late February. The couple den was hidden in drainage canal financial institution that was lined by dense reed stand within the centre of an enormous meadow. Within the late Could the wolf household stayed inside forest habitats in a treefall. There have been 4 surprisingly huge pups. Solely one among them was alive at first of November.
So, in our materials on wolf copy in Naliboki Forest in 2022 (three litters had been investigated) the mortality of pups until November was following: (1) 100%; (2) 25%; (3) not less than 25%.