Co-author Irina Rotenko
Multi-breeding in a wolf pack is likely one of the enigmatic questions of the gray wolf copy. After we started to research the wolf copy in Belarus (primarily in Naliboki Forest and Paazierre Forest) in particulars, we discovered the phenomenon of a pack multi-breeding.
Until 2019 we gained roughly detailed details about denning of 59 wolf breeding teams (i.e. pair or a posh breeding group that consists of two breeding females and grownup male, at the least) in Paazierre Forest within the northern Belarus and in Naliboki Forest within the central-western Belarus. Additionally, an post-mortem of all wolves from 9 entire packs, which have been killed in March-early April in 1997-1999 in Paazierre Forest, was fulfilled. So, the revealed phenomenon of a pack multi-breeding was proved by each trying to find wolf dens (19 instances of a pack multi-breeding have been discovered) and wolf carcass supplies (2 instances of a pack multi-breeding have been discovered).
In 17 instances there have been primarily double-breeding (i.e. there have been two breeding females in a posh breeding group), and in two instances we discovered triple-breeding (Sidorovich & Rotenko, 2019). So, until 2019 we revealed 19 instances of the phenomenon, and 17 out of the 19 instances have been registered within the circumstances of a low density of the entire wolf inhabitants (i.e. dwelling not solely in Naliboki Forest or Paazierre Forest however within the bigger area, which included these forest massifs). As to meals base at breeding, in 12 instances the prey inventory was poor or reasonable, and solely in 7 instances the meals base was wealthy. From these outcomes we concluded that the phenomenon of pack multi-breeding is a density-dependent copy regulation in wolves (Sidorovich & Rotenko, 2019). Additionally, we steered that richness of prey inventory just isn’t a key issue that circumstances multi-breeding in wolf packs.
Wolf pups from two totally different litters, which have been located on the distance of a number of hundred metres. Each litters in the intervening time we found them consisted of larger and smaller pups, as a result of moms took pups from one another.
The gained knowledge means that until 2019 a pack multi-breeding occurred in 32% of instances (denning data) or 22% of instances (carcass data). On the similar time, we guessed that we may underestimate these values, as a result of a few of the instances of pack multi-breeding couldn’t be revealed particularly earlier than 2015. Within the case of denning knowledge not all dens could possibly be discovered, whereas in regards to the carcass supplies not all members of these 9 packs could possibly be killed.
Since 2015 in Naliboki Forest now we have studied on a pack multi-breeding in wolves with sufficient accuracy by investing large efforts and figuring out rather a lot about wolf breeding behaviour in that forested terrain. In whole, throughout 9 years (2015-2023) we traced 24 wolf breeding teams (11 pairs and 13 complicated breeding teams). Throughout these 9 years we investigated 38 breeding tales in particulars. There have been found 11 dens with pups of breeding pairs. Regarding a pack multi-breeding, we discovered 12 instances of double-breeding and one triple-breeding in a posh breeding group. Thus, in 2015-2023 in Naliboki Forest a pack multi-breeding seemed to be actually frequent, and it occurred in 54% of the studied instances. So, pack multi-breeding received commoner than breeding in pairs there. It is usually worthwhile to note that in the entire this era (2015-2023) the wolf inhabitants density in the entire giant area was primarily low, whereas meals base for wolves in Naliboki Forest was reasonable (extra purple deer, however markedly fewer beavers and roe deer than it’s was once).
Right here we additionally want to state that wolf-dog hybridisation in Naliboki Forest and the entire Belarus will be not liable for the revealed phenomenon of a pack multi-breeding in wolves, as a result of we discovered this breeding peculiarity in wolves (i.e. a pack multi-breeding; 6 instances within the denning knowledge and a pair of instances in carcass supplies) earlier than the hybridisation started. At the moment wolves in Belarus have been genetically unpolluted by stray canine. Within the early 2000s we sampled many wolves in Belarus (in Paazierre Forest and Naliboki Forest inclusively) for a genetic research, and none of those wolves confirmed even a canine ancestry (Stronen et al., 2013). Perhaps the on-going wolf-dog hybridisation circumstances by some means a pack multi-breeding, however positively it isn’t the preliminary trigger. Nevertheless, it’s nonetheless a query to research.
In the entire, the phenomenon of a pack multi-breeding in gray wolves in Eurasia is a “golden mine” for a researcher of the species. Nonetheless there are such a lot of urgent questions in that. How such complicated breeding teams are fashioned? What’s a blood relationship between breeding females in a posh breeding group? Are they both mom and daughter or sisters or non-relative subordinated females? Why in some complicated breeding teams there are two and even three massive males, who display impartial and concurrently peaceable behaviour to one another and the way that peculiarity connects with a management (male or feminine) in a posh breeding group? Which components decide the space between totally different litters in a posh breeding group and why it varies a lot from a number of hundred metres until a number of kilometres and adjustments steadily? Why do moms attempt to steal pups from one another? What’s an order of looking and feeding pups in a posh breeding group? This checklist of questions could possibly be continued.
Truly, the deeper we realized the small print of a pack multi-breeding in gray wolves, the extra it appeared like a large number with out a robust consistency. Breeding tales have been so distinctive. Nevertheless, at some point now we have realised that the principle consistency in that breeding mess is to offer doable most of offspring in any respect prices. Apparently, was it evolutionary fashioned or did it seem secondary as a demography adaptation to the extreme long-term persecution by human beings?
Lastly, one hardball query we want to elevate. In keeping with our present thought, a pack multi-breeding in gray wolves, maybe, occurs in every single place in Europe and Asia, however merely it nonetheless unknown. To seek out out this breeding phenomenon, long-term large efforts must be invested in the identical well-known terrain by a sensible method. Perhaps we’re improper, however nonetheless we hardly know another such detailed research on breeding in gray wolves in Europe or Asia that could possibly be in a position really to disclose this phenomenon of a pack multi-breeding detailed sufficient. Maybe, that was simply missed because of not sufficient focus on this query and inadequate efforts and abilities. What do you concentrate on?
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