Element from ‘Conflict’ panel of Commonplace of Ur mosaic, c2600 BCE,
depicting kungas pulling 4-wheeled battle-wagon (© Zunkir/Wikipedia –
CC BY-SA 4.0)

It is at all times good to study of a ‘new’
animal, even when it seems to be one that really existed 4 and a half
millennia in the past! And so, with no additional ado, please welcome to ShukerNature the

Depicted in Mesopotamian artwork and referred
to in cuneiform writings relationship again 4500 years from the Fertile Crescent
area of the Center East, the long-vanished kunga was a strong horse-like
creature that was used as a draft animal to tug conflict wagons into battle and
royal chariots throughout ceremonial parades. Nevertheless, it has lengthy been a puzzle to
archaeologists and zoologists alike.

Shut-up of a kunga, as depicted in a element from ‘Conflict’ panel of
Commonplace of Ur mosaic, relationship from c2600 BCE (© Agricolae/Wikipedia –
CC BY-SA 3.0)

It’s because the home horse Equus caballus was not launched into
this area till 4000 years in the past, and the one identified equine beasts that did
exist there on the time of the kunga had been the home donkey E. africanus asinus and the Syrian wild
ass (aka the hemippe) E. hemionus
, each of which had been smaller and much much less sturdy than the kunga. So
what was it?


A lovely classic color portray by French artist Georges
Severeyns of a Syrian wild ass (the smallest sort of modern-day wild equid
identified to science), in Nouvelles Archives
du Muséum d’histoire Naturelle
, 1869 (public area)

In contrast to many thriller beasts, there are
really bodily, tangible stays of the kunga in existence, as a result of because it
was such a beneficial, helpful work beast, specimens had been generally buried
alongside individuals of excessive social standing, with a number of kunga skeletons having
been found on the northern Syrian burial complicated of Umm el-Marra.
Sadly, nonetheless, the bones of kungas, donkeys, wild asses, and horses as
effectively as mules and different equine hybrids, all look very related, so though
kunga bones have been examined, no conclusive identification of what the kunga
really was has ever resulted – till earlier this yr.

In January 2022, revealed analysis within the
journal Science Advances revealed
that DNA samples had been extracted from the bones of 1 buried kunga specimen
from Umm el-Marra and subjected to comparative sequencing analyses with different
equine kinds. These analyses confirmed that it was a hybrid – most likely the
offspring of an interspecific mating between a male Syrian wild ass and a
feminine home donkey.


Classic engraving from 1841 depicting some Syrian wild asses in
the wild state (public area)

Furthermore, as a result of such matings wouldn’t
happen naturally, and because the kunga, being a hybrid, was virtually actually sterile
(identical to the mule), male wild asses would wish to have been intentionally
captured and mated with feminine home donkeys frequently with the intention to
perpetuate the kunga pressure 4500 years in the past within the Fertile Crescent – thereby
making the kunga the earliest recorded human-engineered hybrid. However when the
horse was launched right here 500 years later, the kunga was not wanted, so
the breeding of it ceased, and this outstanding creature duly vanished from


Syrian wild ass being captured by Assyrians, seventh Century BCE artwork
discovered at Nineveh (Wikipedia/no restrictions)

In fact, one might ask why, now that the
kunga’s exact hybrid nature is lastly identified, scientists are not excitedly proclaiming “Let’s
all do the kunga – let’s resurrect it!”, by as soon as once more mating male Syrian
wild asses with feminine home donkeys. The reply is as tragic as it’s
easy – no such restoration can happen as a result of the kunga’s paternal
progenitor, the Syrian wild ass, is itself now extinct, on account of
over-hunting, with the final two identified specimens each dying in 1927.

So until the kunga and/or the Syrian wild
ass may be recreated by way of genetic means within the laboratory someday, the kunga is
doomed eternally to stay nothing extra very important than a set of long-buried
bones, just a few temporary mentions in cuneiform script, and a few preserved pictures in
historical artwork. RIP.


A trio of poignant pictures depicting one of many world’s final
identified Syrian wild asses, a specimen residing at Vienna’s Tiergarten Schönbrunn in
1915, plus one {photograph} (at backside of photo-column) of a Syrian wild ass at
London Zoo in 1872 (public area)



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