I Know Dino Podcast Present Notes: Camarasaurus (Episode 158)

Episode 158 is all about Camarasaurus, a sauropod whose identify means “chambered lizard.”

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On this episode, we talk about:


  • Jim Kirkland and others revealed a 200+ web page overview of Utah’s geology together with superior pictures just like the one above
  • Three new dinosaurs had been described
    • The late Jurassic theropod Pandoravenator fernandezorum from Argentina
    • The early cretaceous ornithomimosaur Afromimus tenerensis from Niger
    • The titanosaur with presumably the longest identify for a Chinese language dinosaur Zhuchengtitan zangjiazhuangensis
  • A brand new Evo-Devo research revealed “feather-associated genes” and researchers recreated proto-feathers in chickens
  • A brand new staff revealed their ideas on Ornithoscelida and recovered the standard teams
    • Baron et al. revealed a response, however each teams agree the evaluation is simply too delicate to small adjustments in fossil scores
  • PLOS One revealed the outcomes of the PLOS Paleo Neighborhood Prime 10 Open Entry Taxa of 2017 contest
  • Nationwide Geographic reported on superior xray scanners that may hopefully assist forestall fossil poaching
  • “Dinosaurs of New Mexico” is on the Carlsbad Museum and Artwork Middle, in Carlsbad, New Mexico
  • Royal Ontario Museum in Canada could have their annual Madeleine A. Fritz lecture on January 30, at 7 pm, tickets are $20
  • In Scottsdale, Arizona, Pangaea Land of the Dinosaurs has rescheduled its grand opening to December 12
  • Smithsonian revealed a publish on Charles Whitney Gilmore, the “forgotten dinosaur hunter”
  • Grand Staircase Nationwide Monument in Utah, could also be opened for growth, probably destroying many fossils
  • Cal State Fullerton has a brand new course, referred to as Dinosaur World about dinosaur evolution, anatomy, habits, weight loss program, & extinction
  • Colin Trevorrow tweeted a clip of Owen Grady giving a chin scratch to a child raptor
  • Bustle revealed a chunk with extra particulars in regards to the dinosaur on Marvel’s Runaways present, now on Hulu
  • In Ankara, Turkey, a large T. rex statue has been eliminated in favor of an Transformer knockoff
  • Caleb Brown and Don Henderson will host an AMA on Borealopelta, on reddit at r/Science on Friday, December 8

The dinosaur of the day: Camarasaurus

  • Sauropod that lived within the Jurassic in what’s now the Morrison Formation, in North America
  • Title means “chambered lizard”
  • Had hole chambers in its vertebrae
  • First present in 1877, by Oramel W. Lucas, in Colorado
  • Named by Edward Drinker Cope in 1877, who paid for the bones (all throughout the Bone Wars)
  • Three legitimate species: Camarasaurus supremus, Camarasaurus grandis, Camarasaurus lentus
  • Kind species is Camarasaurus supremus (the initially named species, whose identify means “the largest chambered lizard”)
  • Different species embody Camarasaurus grandis (“grand chambered lizard,” named in 1877), Camarasaurus lentus, named in 1889
  • Othniel Charles Marsh later named some sauropods Morosaurus grandis, however these are actually thought of to be Camarasaurus
  • There was additionally Camarasaurus lewisi, which was named in 1988 and initially categorised as Cathetosaurus. However in 2013 one other research break up the 2 genera once more
  • Camarasaurus synonyms embody Caulodon, Morosaurus, Uintasaurus
  • Some of the generally discovered sauropods
  • A number of Camarasaurus skulls have been discovered
  • Cope wasn’t the perfect report keeper, and he labeled some Camarasaurus fossils (now at AMNH) with letters and numbers, to correspond with a set of dig website sketches. However he threw away the dig website sketches, so it’s not clear what he meant (some copies have been discovered, however not sufficient)
  • Brontosaurus was initially given a Camarasaurus cranium (Brontosaurus is a diplodocid, so it’s cranium was extra probably elongated and slender, and never so boxy)
  • Charles W. Gilmore discovered a virtually full skeleton of Camarasaurus in 1925 (a younger Camarasaurus, so drawings from that point depict Camarasaurus as smaller than we now know it’s)
  • Camarasaurus is a basal macronarian, a gaggle of sauropods that stored their heads up excessive and embody Brachiosaurus,‭ ‬Giraffatitan, Lusotitan
  • Camarasaurus grandis is the oldest species
  • Camarasaurus lentus and Camarasaurus grandis most likely co-existed for a number of million years, and had been barely completely different so most likely crammed barely completely different ecological roles
  • Camarasaurus grandis disappeared, then Camarasaurus lentus disappeared, across the similar time Camarasaurus supremus appeared, which can imply Camarasaurus supremus developed from Camarasaurus lentus
  • Solely distinction between Camarasaurus supremus and Camarasaurus lentus is that Camarasaurus supremus was bigger (additionally, it was discovered within the higher components of the formation, so it’s the most recent Camarasaurus)
  • Camarasaurus lentus may develop as much as 49 ft (15 m) lengthy
  • Camarasaurus supremus may develop as much as 75 ft (23 m) lengthy and weigh as much as 47 tons
  • Had pneumatic bones, with air sacs within the vertebrae that related to the lungs
  • Forelimbs had been shorter than the hindlimbs
  • Had 5 toes, and sharp claws on its toes
  • For some time, it was thought that Camarasaurus had a second mind (had an enlarged area by the hips), however that is now not considered true
  • Most likely had a stiff, muscular neck
  • Most likely traveled in herds or teams of households, primarily based on two adults and a juvenile that had been discovered to have died collectively, from drowning whereas crossing a flooded river
  • Most likely didn’t care for its younger, like different sauropods, primarily based on nests discovered with Camarasaurus eggs present in strains (not organized properly, and the eggs could have been laid close to undergrowth so hatchlings may run for canopy)
  • Charles Marsh at one level thought that Camarasaurus gave dwell beginning (like sharks, which develop eggs within the physique and provides dwell beginning), however there’s no proof for this
  • Had a blunt snout and a squarish, arched cranium
  • Could have had a beak. No proof has been discovered but, however some Camarasaurus enamel have been discovered within the decrease jaws that aren’t related to the jaw bone precisely however had been preserved in the fitting place (could have been due to gentle tissue that stored them there); a beak would even have helped it shear by means of vegetation
  • Had spatulate enamel
  • Tooth had been sturdy, may most likely eat robust vegetation
  • Most likely held its neck up excessive, and was a excessive browser
  • One Camarasaurus specimen discovered had proof of sentimental tissue (the gums), which present that Camarasaurus most likely had gums overlaying all however the suggestions of the crowns of its enamel. The specimen is nicknamed “ET” as a result of when it was first discovered all you may see was a finger bone popping out of the rock
  • Most likely didn’t swallow gastroliths, as an alternative, had sturdy enamel that had been changed about each 62 days (so could have chewed its meals)
  • Vegetation on the time included ferns, conifers, inexperienced algae, fungi, mosses, horsetails, cycads, and ginkoes
  • Lived in a semiarid atmosphere with moist and dry seasons
  • Additionally lived amongst snails, fish, frogs, salamanders, turtles, lizards, crocodylomorphs, pterosaur-like animals, and early mammals
  • Different dinosaurs that lived amongst Camarasaurus embody Diplodocus, Apatosaurus, Brachiosaurus, ornithischians reminiscent of Camptosaurus, Stegosaurus, Dryosaurus, theropods like Saurophaganax, Torvosaurus, Ceratosaurus, Ornitholestes, and Allosaurus
  • A partial Camarasaurus grandis skeleton present in 1992 on the Bryan Small Stegosaurus Quarry of the Morrison Formation was discovered to have pathologies that may have made it troublesome to maneuver its forelimb (a lesion on the bone that appears to be product of woven bone fibers). It most likely healed however with a development that may have made it troublesome to forage for meals and escape predators. Pathology could have been brought on by an avulsion damage (a part of the bone and its muscle attachment was ripped from the remainder of the bone), based on McWhinney and others, which can have been due to a slip or fall, or repetitive pressure (that Camarasaurus could have lived in an space of uneven floor)
  • A Camarasaurus pelvis present in Dinosaur Nationwide Monument in Utah reveals indicators of Allosaurus bites (Allosaurus didn’t essentially kill the Camarasaurus, as an alternative it could have eaten the Camarasaurus after it died)
  • One Camarasaurus specimen was ready and placed on exhibit on the 1933 World’s Truthful, and is now on show on the Smithsonian Nationwide Museum of Pure Historical past in Washington, D.C.
  • A mounted Camarasaurus, lent from the Smithsonian, was on show on the Dallas Federal Constructing as a part of the 1960 expo to rejoice Texas’ one centesimal birthday
  • Can see a Camarasaurus on the Carnegie Museum of Pure Historical past in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  • Can see a Camarasaurus in situ at Dinosaur Nationwide Monument
  • Solely two skulls left on the quarry face at Dinosaur Nationwide Monument are of Camarasaurus (may see the neck bones of 1)

Enjoyable Reality:

Mammals had been most likely principally nocturnal till dinosaurs went extinct. This will have resulted in a “nocturnal bottleneck” giving trendy mammals some nocturnal options together with: Giant eyes that favor low gentle to precision, a broad vary of listening to, a greater sense of odor, and whiskers.


This episode is delivered to you partly by TRX Dinosaurs, which makes stunning and life like dinosaur sculptures, puppets, and displays. You may see some wonderful examples and works in progress on Instagram @trxdinosaurs

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