Episode 468: What to feed a dinosaur

Episode 468: What to feed a dinosaur. Ali Nabavizadeh, professional in dinosaur feeding biology, joins us to debate which trendy meals completely different dinosaurs might eat. Plus a brand new Triceratops frill that was chewed on by a T. rex


  • An undergraduate scholar discovered one of many largest theropod fossils within the jap U.S. supply
  • There’s a possible new certificates of paleontology for undergrads at Utah State College supply
  • New proof of Tyrannosaurus biting Triceratops proper on the frill supply
  • Hadrosaurs might have had muscle tissue for chewing (not simply biting and swallowing issues complete) supply
  • Phrases matter, and scientific names can have an effect on how one thing is perceived supply
  • Researchers analyzed paleontology documentaries supply
  • Why Dinosaurs? documentary had its Hollywood premiere supply


Ali Nabavizadeh, a paleontologist, Assistant Professor of Biomedical Sciences on the College of Pennsylvania Faculty of Veterinary Drugs, and writer of the lately printed e-book “An Illustrated Information to Dinosaur Feeding Biology”. Observe him on twitter or Instagram @Vert_Anatomist


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The dinosaur of the day: Liaoceratops

  • Ceratopsian that lived within the Early Cretaceous in what’s now Liaoning Province, China (Yixian Formation)
  • Small, walked on two legs
  • Could have seemed considerably just like Psittacosaurus, however with a brief frill on its head
  • Described as hare-sized
  • Estimated to be about 1.6 ft (50 cm) lengthy and weighed 4.4 lb (2 kg)
  • Estimated to be about 1 ft tall (0.3 m)
  • Holotype cranium was about 6 in (154 mm) lengthy
  • Cranium comparable in dimension to Psittacosaurus
  • Solely skulls discovered up to now
  • No horns
  • Had small neck frill
  • Had a small horn that confronted sideways beneath every of its eyes, which was small and lightweight, so might have been for show
  • Had pitted floor texture on the perimeters of the frill that present there have been jaw muscle tissue that went behind the cheek and hooked up to the frill, which was thick
  • Ate vegetation, akin to probably ginkgo, horsetails, or conifers, which have been discovered close by
  • Sliced and sheared its meals, as a substitute of grinding
  • In all probability hid or ran away when it wanted to defend itself
  • Early relative of ceratopsids
  • A part of the department (Neoceratopsia) that led to ceratopsians like Triceratops (one other completely different department consists of Psittacosaurus)
  • Helps present the early evolution of ceratopsians and that the break up occurred no less than by the Early Cretaceous, about 130 million years in the past
  • Helps present that the massive ceratopsians like Triceratops advanced from small ancestors, and that ceratopsians bought a few of their distinct options early and extra shortly then scientists beforehand thought
  • Named in 2002 by Xu Xing and others
  • Sort species is Liaoceratops yanzigouensis
  • Genus title means “Liaoning horned face”
  • Species title refers back to the city Yanzigou
  • Holotype features a almost full subadult cranium
  • Different skulls discovered, together with a juvenile cranium and a good youthful partial cranium and jaw from a smaller particular person (no cranium roof, or braincase, or left cheek area, which may very well be as a result of a, most likely small, predator consuming its mind)
  • Regarded as a small predator as a result of when small owls like screech owls go after prey, they “dismember the carcass small chew by small chew” in comparison with nice horned owls that swallow mice complete, in keeping with You Hailu and others
  • One of many juvenile skulls is about half so long as the holotype
  • A 2023 examine of the within of the cranium discovered that Liaoceratops had a comparatively giant olfactory bulb, so most likely had a very good sense of scent, and had different particulars that recommend it had a secure gaze and stored its head almost horizontal
  • Additionally discovered that it had comparatively quick cochlear ducts, so most likely might hear comparatively excessive frequencies
  • And located proof suggesting that grownup Liaoceratops was agile on two legs and moved equally to an grownup Psittacosaurus
  • A examine of the enamel of Liaoceratops in 2018 discovered that it changed enamel with progressively bigger enamel because it grew to maintain up with its rising jaws
  • Additionally discovered proof of the beginnings of dental batteries, or no less than traits that led to the evolution of dental batteries
  • Lived in a moist, humid local weather with dry seasons, and a mean yearly temperature of fifty levels F (10 levels C)
  • Different animals that lived across the similar time and place embody bugs, and plenty of dinosaurs akin to Psittacosaurus, troodontids Mei (the sleeping one), Sinovenator, and Daliansaurus, dromaeosaur Graciliraptor, the oviraptorosaur Incisivosaurus, the ornithomimosaur Shenzhousaurus, mammals, amphibians, fish
  • Additionally discovered flowering vegetation

Enjoyable Reality:

Triceratops had muscle tissue working partially up the entrance of its frill, just like our temporal muscle tissue.

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