Episode 467: Early Dinosaur Entrepreneurs and Triceratops Horn Lengths

Episode 467: Early Dinosaur Entrepreneurs and Triceratops Horn Lengths. Mary Anning, Franz Nopcsa, and Roy Chapman Andrews have been a few of the first dinosaur entrepreneurs. Plus giant dinosaur eyes, small microfossils, dinosaur poaching, and new Triceratops horn size estimates.


  • Paleontologists mentioned the state of Dinosauria supply
  • Dinosaur eye measurement will help scientists determine how nicely an animal may see supply
  • Microfossils are essential and are actually getting studied extra supply
  • The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology participates in discussions and points that have an effect on vertebrate paleontology and the general public supply
  • 4 individuals have been arrested for allegedly stealing and promoting $1 million value of dinosaur bones supply
  • Fossils discovered on federal lands are essential to the science of paleontology supply


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The dinosaur of the day: Euhelopus

  • Sauropod that lived within the Early Cretaceous in what’s now Shandong Province, China (Meng-Yin Formation)
  • Giant, walked on all fours, and had longer forelimbs than hindlimbs
  • Had a protracted neck, and seemed much like Mamenchisaurus, however they’re not that intently associated
  • Extra intently associated to titanosaurs
  • Cranium seems much like Camarasaurus, and likewise has some similarities to Mamenchisaurus
  • Neck was about 13 ft (4 m) lengthy and had 17 neck vertebrae
  • Had air sacs within the neck, much like titanosauriforms and a few mamenchisaurids
  • Had a box-like cranium form, with giant nostrils
  • Had pencil-like tooth
  • In all probability ate hardy vegetation
  • Totally different measurement estimates: considered as much as 49 ft (15 m) lengthy and weigh 17 to 22 tons; later considered about 36 ft (11 m) lengthy and weigh near 4 tons; one other estimate was about 6.5 tons, and a later estimate was it weighed virtually 4 tons
  • First dinosaur to be named and described from China
  • Discovered a partial skeleton that included a comparatively full cranium and decrease jaws, vertebrae, the left thighbone, a part of the shoulder, and one other skeleton that included vertebrae, an almost full pelvis, proper leg
  • Distinctive options embody particulars within the neck vertebrae, having divided or forked neural spines on the again of the neck and entrance of the again, and having air sacs within the ilium (higher half of the pelvis)
  • Fossils first present in 1913 by a Catholic priest, Father Mertens. He confirmed a few of the bones to Gustav Behaghel, a German mining engineer, in 1916, who despatched three vertebrae to Ding Wenjiang (V.Ok. Ting), the top of the Geological Survey of China
  • Fossil web site rediscovered in 1922
  • Then in 1923 two skeletons excavated, and H. C. T’an studied the holotype
  • Initially named in 1929 as Helopus, by Carl Wiman which implies “Marsh Foot”
  • Genus identify refers back to the marshy space the place the fossils have been discovered, in addition to to truga, Swedish swamp sneakers that Wiman stated seemed just like the broad toes of the dinosaur
  • Seems, the identify was already used for a hen, named in 1832
  • Renamed Euhelopus in 1956 by Alfred Romer
  • Genus identify means “true marsh foot”
  • There’s a grass/plant with the identical identify, however because it’s a plant, Euhelopus may also be the identify of a dinosaur/animal
  • Sort species is Euhelophus zdanskyi
  • Species identify is in honor of Zdansky
  • Zdansky didn’t end excavating the holotype so in 1934 C. C. Younger and M. N. Bien discovered extra bones (components of the shoulder and proper humerus)
  • Each skeletons are on the Paleontological Museum of Uppsala College in Sweden (have been on show for the reason that Nineteen Thirties)
  • One of many few sauropods recognized from an virtually full cranium and jaw
  • Among the tooth discovered have been initially thought to belong to a mammal, however have been later redescribed as belonging to Euhelopus
  • Numerous debate over what kind of sauropod Euhelopus is
  • Had a protracted neck and tail, a sloping again, and a proportionately small head
  • In 2010, Andreas Christian studied the top and neck of Euhelopus
  • Head and neck collectively weighed about 460 lb (210 kg), and base of the neck to the snout was about 15 ft (4.6 m)
  • Calculated the stresses the neck joints felt, and located Euhelopus in all probability saved its head up like a giraffe’s
  • Would have helped eat medium and excessive up leaves
  • Saved neck at an angle of between 40 and 50 levels
  • Didn’t have a really versatile neck
  • Would have taken much less vitality to maintain its neck up keep its hypertension for consuming leaves up excessive than strolling to search out extra meals
  • Had lengthy neck ribs that helped it shift muscle mass additional again in direction of the trunk
  • “Throughout a meals scarcity, elevating the neck was in all probability even important for surviving; it’s higher to get little than nothing in any respect”
  • Different animals that lived across the similar time and place included stegosaurids (indeterminate fossils discovered), fish, and reptiles

Enjoyable Truth:

Triceratops horns have been in all probability coated in keratin that made them considerably longer, however probably much less sharp than the horn cores preserved with the skulls

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