Episode 411: An enormous discover from Africa and a dinosaur egg filled with crystals

Episode 411: An enormous discover from Africa and a dinosaur egg filled with crystals. A bonebed of over two dozen iguanodontians from a brand new species, a brand new ceratopsian, and rather more


  • At the very least 27 iguanodontians from the brand new genus, Iyuku, had been found in a South African bonebed supply
  • New chasmosaurine ceratopsid dinosaur Bisticeratops froeseorum was found. supply
  • Scientists named a brand new kind of dinosaur egg (which was discovered filled with crystals). supply
  • Scientists discovered a pathology in a titanosaur egg that would inform us extra about dinosaur reproductive habits. supply
  • A bunch of dinosaur tracks and trackways had been present in Alberta, Canada, that will present dinosaurs being sociable. supply
  • One other Tyrannosaurus rex is occurring public sale. supply
  • Scientists discovered new dinosaur tracks in Alaska because of an earthquake. supply
  • The Badlands Dinosaur Museum discovered child dinosaurs this summer season. supply



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The dinosaur of the day: Oxalaia

  • Spinosaurid that lived within the Late Cretaceous (about 100.5 to 93.9 million years in the past) in what’s now northeastern Brazil (Alcântara Formation)
  • Not many bones discovered, however in all probability appeared like different spinosaurs
  • Carefully associated to Spinosaurus, and could also be a junior synonym of Spinosaurus
  • Had an elongated jaw
  • In all probability had brief again legs, strong arms, and a protracted tail
  • Unclear if it had a sail on its again, as a result of no fossils discovered (except it seems it’s a junior synonym to Spinosaurus)
  • Cranium estimated to be 4.4 ft (1.35 m) lengthy
  • Spinosaurus cranium has been estimated to be between 5.25 to five.75 ft (1.6 to 2.1 m) lengthy. Be taught extra in episode 300
  • Estimated to be 39 to 46 ft (12 to 14 m) lengthy, primarily based on evaluating the snout to the snout of MSNM V4047 (a really giant Spinosaurus cf., present in 2005)
  • Estimated to weigh 5 to 7 tons
  • Tooth weren’t serrated
  • In all probability ate fish, however could have additionally eaten dinosaurs and pterosaurs (primarily based on proof from different spinosaurids)
  • Fossils present in 1999 on Cajual Island
  • Discovered two partial cranium bones
  • Described in 2011 by Alexander Kellner and others
  • Kind and solely species is Oxalaia quilombensis
  • Genus identify refers back to the African deity Oxalá. In accordance with the paper describing Oxalaia, “probably the most revered masculine deity within the African pantheon, launched in Brazil throughout slavery”
  • Species identify refers back to the Brazilian quilombo settlements (the place descendants of former Brazilian slaves dwell), a few of which had been on Cajual Island
  • Holotype present in situ, and consists of the fused premaxillae (entrance of the snout)
  • Additionally referred an incomplete left maxilla (higher jaw)
  • Holotype was a uncommon discover as a result of robust tides eroded many fossils on the web site the place it was discovered
  • Tons of of spinosaurid tooth present in the identical space
  • Partial cranium and tooth had distinct options, akin to two substitute tooth in every socket, and a extra rounded tip of the snout
  • Latest spinosaurid tooth paper (episode 409), talked about how spinosaurids had two substitute tooth, so undecided how distinct a characteristic this nonetheless is
  • Had seven premaxillary tooth
  • MSNM V4047 solely had six premaxillary tooth
  • Robert Smyth and others in 2020 discovered Oxalaia didn’t have sufficient distinct options to be its personal taxon, and as a substitute any variations had been attributable to particular person variation and that it was a junior synonym of Spinosaurus (which might imply Spinosaurus had a wider distribution than beforehand thought)
  • Fossils had been on the Nationwide Museum of Rio de Janeiro, however they could have been destroyed within the 2018 hearth
  • Lived in a tropical, forested space, with a lot of conifers
  • Space surrounded by an arid panorama
  • Different dinosaurs that lived across the identical time and place embody carcharodontosaurids, dromaeosaurs, sauropods, theropods
  • Different animals that lived across the identical time and place embody pterosaurs, crocodylomorphs, turtles, fish
  • Related animals and vegetation discovered within the Kem Kem Beds of Morocco from the identical time interval (Africa and South America was related as Gondwana, and elements had been nonetheless related throughout this time interval)
  • Can see Oxalaia within the sport Jurassic World: Primal Ops

Enjoyable Reality:

If dinosaurs had NASA, they could have averted extinction (see Double Asteroid Redirection Check).

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