11 Elements That Shouldn’t Be in Your Canine’s Shampoo

iHeartDogs is reader-supported. A number of the hyperlinks under could also be paid affiliate hyperlinks, the place we obtain a small fee on a product at no further price to you. 

Uncover the important thing to a more healthy, happier pup via our information on canine shampoo substances. Each pet father or mother needs the very best for his or her canine, however with the overwhelming array of grooming merchandise out there and the vast use of chemical substances in use, making the best alternative generally is a problem. Study in regards to the frequent but probably dangerous substances lurking in canine shampoos, similar to Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS), Parabens, and Phthalates, and why they is perhaps detrimental to your canine’s well being. Additionally find out about pure, skin-friendly options like Coconut Oil derivatives and important oils that promote a wholesome coat with out compromising security.

Whether or not you’re bathing a pet or a senior canine, understanding these key parts helps be sure that tub time just isn’t solely fulfilling but additionally useful in your canine’s pores and skin and general well-being. Embrace a holistic strategy to canine care, and embark on a journey to search out the proper, health-promoting shampoo in your canine.

dog shampoo ingredients

At a Look: Canine Shampoo Elements to Keep away from

Right here’s a fast listing of the “dangerous” substances in canine shampoo you’ll wish to keep away from. Learn on to study extra about these dangerous results of those frequent canine shampoo substances.

  • Synthetic Fragrances: May cause irritation and allergic reactions.
  • Synthetic Colours: Pointless and might trigger pores and skin irritation.
  • Parabens (Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and many others.): Used as preservatives, however can disrupt hormone perform.
  • Formaldehyde: A preservative that may be poisonous and trigger allergic reactions.
  • Isopropyl Alcohol (Rubbing Alcohol): May be drying and worsening to a canine’s pores and skin.
  • Mineral Oil: A petroleum by-product that may clog pores and hinder pores and skin respiration.
  • Phthalates: Used to dissolve different substances, however will be dangerous to the liver and kidneys.
  • Propylene Glycol: Used as a moisturizer however will be dangerous in massive portions.
  • Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES) / Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS): Creates lather however could cause pores and skin irritation and allergic reactions.
  • Cocamide-MEA/Cocamide-DEA: Foaming brokers that may trigger allergic reactions.
  • Diethanolamine (DEA): Used to create a creamy texture, however will be dangerous to the liver and kidneys.
  • Triethanolamine (TEA): Adjusts pH however could cause pores and skin and eye irritation.
  • Polyethylene Glycol (PEG): Helps with absorption however will be irritating to the pores and skin.

dog shampoo ingredients

Study Extra About Canine Shampoo Elements to Keep away from

#1 – Surfactants

Surfactants are energetic compounds broadly utilized in canine shampoo substances to serve a number of functions, together with performing as emulsifiers, detergents, wetting brokers, and foaming brokers. Their main perform is to decrease the floor stress between two substances, similar to oil and water, making it simpler to take away grime and oils from the canine’s pores and skin and fur.

Widespread Dangerous Surfactants

  • Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) and Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES): These are maybe essentially the most well-known and generally used surfactants in beauty and private care merchandise. They’re identified for his or her sturdy cleansing energy and skill to create lather. Nonetheless, SLS and SLES can strip away pure oils from the pores and skin and fur, resulting in dryness, irritation, and potential allergic reactions. The harshness of those chemical substances also can harm the pores and skin barrier, making it simpler for carcinogens and different dangerous substances to penetrate the pores and skin.
  • Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate (ALS) and Ammonium Laureth Sulfate (ALES): Much like SLS and SLES, these ammonium-based surfactants are efficient cleansers and foaming brokers. Nonetheless, they share the identical drawbacks, together with the potential to annoy the pores and skin and fur, disrupt the pure pores and skin barrier, and permit for the penetration of dangerous substances.

Protected Options

  • Sodium Cocoyl Isethionate: This can be a mild surfactant derived from coconut oil. It’s identified for its delicate properties, making it appropriate for delicate pores and skin. It successfully cleanses with out stripping away pure oils, thus sustaining the pores and skin’s moisture steadiness.
  • Decyl Glucoside: One other coconut-derived surfactant, Decyl Glucoside is understood for its gentleness and low potential for pores and skin irritation. It’s biodegradable and environmentally pleasant, making it a protected alternative for pet mother and father who’re additionally aware in regards to the environmental affect of their merchandise.
  • Lauryl Glucoside: A plant-derived surfactant identified for its skin-friendly properties. Lauryl Glucoside is constructed from coconut oil and glucose, and it successfully cleans with out irritating the pores and skin. It’s biodegradable and eco-friendly, making it a superb alternative for canine shampoos targeted on pure substances. This surfactant is appropriate for canines with delicate pores and skin on account of its delicate and non-toxic nature. Skout’s Honor focuses on protected formulation and contains this mild surfactant of their Probiotic Lavender Pet Shampoo & Conditioner to present your pup a great clear that protects towards environmental harm and irritation. 
SKOUT'S HONOR: Probiotic Shampoo + Conditioner
  • Accommodates probiotics for a balanced pores and skin microbiome
  • 2-in-1 shampoo and conditioner
  • Consists of Avocado oil and Omega-3s
  • No sulfates, parabens, triclosan, petroleum, DEA, or added colours
  • Calming Lavender scent 

#2 – Parabens and Preservatives

Preservatives in canine shampoos lengthen shelf life and forestall the expansion of micro organism, mildew, and yeast. Nonetheless, sure generally used preservatives can pose well being dangers to canines.

Widespread Dangerous Preservatives

  • Parabens (Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and many others.): Extensively utilized in cosmetics and private care merchandise, parabens are efficient preservatives. Nonetheless, they’re identified to imitate estrogen within the physique and should disrupt hormone capabilities, probably resulting in most cancers and tumors. They will additionally trigger pores and skin irritation and allergic reactions.
  • BHA/BHT (Butylated Hydroxyanisole and Butylated Hydroxytoluene): These artificial antioxidants are used to stop rancidity in oils and fat however are suspected to be endocrine disruptors and carcinogens. They could additionally trigger liver and kidney harm.
  • DMDM Hydantoin: A preservative that releases formaldehyde, a identified carcinogen. It might probably trigger allergic reactions, pores and skin irritation, and is dangerous to the immune system.
  • Phenoxyethanol: Used as a preservative in lots of cosmetics, phenoxyethanol could cause pores and skin irritation and is perhaps poisonous to the liver and nervous system.
  • TEA (Triethanolamine): Usually used to regulate pH, TEA could cause pores and skin and eye irritation and is suspected to be a carcinogen. It might additionally react with different substances to type cancer-causing nitrosamines.

RELATED: Canine Most cancers – What You Can Do To Shield Your Canine

Protected Options

  • Rosemary Important Oil: Not solely does it have pure preservative properties, however additionally it is useful for the pores and skin and fur, offering a soothing impact.
  • Gluconolactone: Derived from corn, gluconolactone is a polyhydroxy acid (PHA) that provides preservative results. It’s mild and antioxidant-rich, making it appropriate for delicate pores and skin.
  • Glyceryl Caprylate: Derived from coco, palm, and glycerin, this compound is efficient in combating yeast, micro organism, and mildew, making it a protected preservative different. It’s additionally identified for its moisturizing properties.

#3 – Moisturizers

Moisturizers in canine shampoos are important for sustaining the hydration of the pores and skin and fur. Whereas many moisturizers are useful, some generally used canine shampoo substances will be detrimental to a canine’s pores and skin well being.

Widespread Dangerous Moisturizers

  • Mineral Oil: A by-product of petroleum processing, mineral oil creates a barrier on the pores and skin and fur. Whereas it may appear to lock in moisture, it really coats the pores and skin like plastic, clogging pores and interfering with the pores and skin’s pure capacity to launch toxins and breathe.
  • Dimethicone: A kind of silicone used for its smoothing and lubricating properties. Nonetheless, like mineral oil, it types a barrier on the pores and skin and fur that may entice grime, sweat, micro organism, and sebum, probably resulting in pores and skin irritation and exacerbating pores and skin circumstances.
  • Petrolatum: Usually used for its barrier-forming and moisturizing properties, petrolatum also can clog pores and decelerate pores and skin perform and cell improvement. It might additionally comprise impurities linked to most cancers.
  • Paraffin: A waxy substance derived from petroleum, coal, or oil shale. Whereas it’s a typical ingredient in varied skincare merchandise, it may well clog pores and forestall the pores and skin from respiration, which can result in irritation and decelerate the pure regenerative processes of the pores and skin.

Protected Options

  • Cocoa Butter: A pure fats extracted from the cocoa bean, cocoa butter is wealthy in fatty acids and hydrates the pores and skin deeply. It’s additionally identified for its therapeutic properties and might enhance the well being and look of a canine’s pores and skin and fur.
  • Coconut Oil: Recognized for its moisturizing and antibacterial properties, coconut oil nourishes the pores and skin and fur with out clogging pores, selling wholesome pores and skin and a shiny coat. Choices like Burt’s Bees Pure Hydrating Shampoo With Coconut Oil present a pure infusion of moisture to sooth dry canine coats.
  • Sunflower Oil: Excessive in nutritional vitamins A, D, and E, sunflower oil is a superb moisturizer that helps to take care of the pores and skin’s pure barrier and reduces transepidermal water loss.
  • Avocado Oil: Wealthy in nutritional vitamins A, D, and E in addition to omega-3 fatty acids, avocado oil is very penetrating and imparts useful vitamins to the pores and skin, supporting wholesome pores and skin and fur.
  • Ardour Fruit Oil: Also called maracuja oil, it’s light-weight and wealthy in nutritional vitamins and minerals, making it a superb moisturizer for sustaining a wholesome coat.
  • Castor Oil: Recognized for its humectant properties, castor oil helps in retaining moisture by stopping water loss via the outer layer of the pores and skin.
Burt's Bees for Pets Natural Hydrating Shampoo With Coconut Oil
  • Hydrates your canine’s pores and skin and coat
  • Makes use of pure substances like coconut oil
  • Good for canines with delicate pores and skin
  • Protected for puppies and grownup canines

#4 – Synthetic Fragrances

Fragrances are sometimes added to canine shampoo substances to make them extra interesting to pet mother and father. However not all fragrances are protected. Some can have adversarial results on a canine’s well being.

Widespread Dangerous Fragrances

  • Artificial Parfum (Perfume): The time period “perfume” or “parfum” on an ingredient label can check with a mix of assorted chemical scent compounds. These artificial fragrances are regarding as a result of they’ll comprise dangerous chemical substances not listed individually on the label. They will trigger allergic reactions, dermatitis, and respiratory issues in each pets and people. Moreover, a few of these chemical substances are suspected endocrine disruptors and might negatively affect the liver and reproductive organs.
  • Phthalates: Usually used together with artificial fragrances, phthalates assist scents last more. Drawback is, they’re identified to be endocrine disruptors and have been linked to liver and kidney harm, in addition to reproductive points. The hidden hazard of phthalates is that they’re not often listed explicitly on ingredient labels, usually lurking beneath the final time period “perfume.”

Protected Options

  • Important Oils: Pure important oils can present a nice scent with out the dangers related to artificial fragrances. Nonetheless, it’s essential to make use of them judiciously, as some important oils will be dangerous to canines if used improperly or in extreme quantities. Oils like lavender, chamomile, and rosemary are usually protected and might supply further therapeutic advantages.
  • Pure Perfume Oils: These are fragrances which are derived from pure sources via strategies like distillation, expression, or extraction. In contrast to artificial fragrances, pure perfume oils keep the pure integrity of the scent compounds with out the addition of artificial chemical substances. They’re a safer possibility for including perfume to canine shampoos and are much less more likely to trigger adversarial reactions. However, as at all times, take care in utilizing any new merchandise along with your canine.

#5 – Anti-Bacterial Brokers

Anti-bacterial brokers are sometimes added to canine shampoos to get rid of micro organism and forestall odor. Nonetheless, sure anti-bacterial chemical substances will be dangerous to canines.

Widespread Dangerous Anti-Bacterial Agent

  • Triclosan: This can be a broadly used anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agent present in varied client merchandise, together with canine shampoos. Triclosan is understood for its efficient bacterial killing properties, nevertheless it has come beneath scrutiny for its potential well being dangers. Research have proven triclosan can disrupt endocrine capabilities, notably thyroid hormones, that are essential for regular development and improvement. It’s additionally been linked to reproductive malfunctions and pores and skin irritation. Attributable to these considerations, triclosan has been phased out in sure merchandise, however it could nonetheless be current in some canine shampoos.

Protected Options

  • Acapulco Extract: Derived from the leaves of the Acapulco plant, this pure extract has been historically used for its anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. It’s a protected and efficient different that not solely combats micro organism but additionally promotes more healthy pores and skin.
  • Sugarcane Alcohol: Ethanol derived from sugarcane is a pure disinfectant that may successfully get rid of micro organism with out the dangerous uncomfortable side effects of triclosan. It’s mild on the pores and skin and a safer alternative for anti-bacterial functions in canine shampoos.
  • Chitosan: This can be a pure polysaccharide obtained from the shells of crustaceans like shrimp and crabs. Chitosan has anti-bacterial properties and is biodegradable, making it a protected and eco-friendly different. It’s additionally identified for its capacity to advertise wound therapeutic and enhance pores and skin well being.

#6 – Colorants

Colorants are added to canine shampoos primarily for aesthetic causes, to make the product visually interesting. Not all colorants are protected, although, and a few can pose well being dangers to canines.

Widespread Dangerous Colorants

  • Lake Dyes and FD&C Colours: These artificial colorants are derived from coal tar and petroleum. They’re broadly utilized in varied client merchandise, together with cosmetics and private care gadgets. Current consciousness has raised considerations about their security, as they’re thought-about potential neurotoxins and have been linked to most cancers. Along with their potential carcinogenic properties, these synthetic colours could cause allergic reactions and pores and skin irritations in each canines and people.
  • Carmine: Though a pure colorant derived from crushed cochineal bugs, carmine is one other colorant to keep away from. It’s generally utilized in cosmetics and meals merchandise for its purple pigment. Nonetheless, carmine could cause allergic reactions in some canines and folks. Moreover, the moral considerations concerning its manufacturing from bugs make it a much less fascinating alternative for a lot of pet homeowners.

Protected Options

  • Mineral Oxides: These are pure inorganic compounds used for coloring and are thought-about protected to be used in canine shampoos. Mineral oxides, similar to iron oxide (for purple, brown, and yellow colours) and titanium dioxide (for white), present a variety of colours with out the dangers related to artificial dyes or pure colorants like carmine. They’re non-toxic, hypoallergenic, and environmentally pleasant, making them a superb alternative for coloring canine shampoos.

#7 – Emulsifiers

Emulsifiers in canine shampoos are substances that assist mix water with oils and fat, making a constant and secure combination. They’re key in forming the creamy textures and bubbles that make shampoos efficient and fulfilling to make use of. Nonetheless, some generally used emulsifiers will be dangerous.

Widespread Dangerous Emulsifiers

  • Diethanolamine (DEA): DEA is utilized in many beauty and private care merchandise for its emulsifying properties. It helps create a wealthy lather and creamy texture. Nonetheless, DEA has been a topic of concern on account of its potential well being dangers. Research have proven that DEA can disrupt hormonal steadiness, notably affecting the perform of the endocrine system. It has additionally been linked to an elevated threat of liver and kidney cancers. DEA can react with different substances in a product to type nitrosamines, that are identified carcinogens.
  • Cocamide Monoethanolamine (MEA): Much like Cocamide DEA, Cocamide MEA is used for its foaming properties and in addition to thicken the product. Like DEA, MEA also can react with different chemical substances to type probably dangerous substances.

Protected Options

  • Stearyl Alcohol: This can be a fatty alcohol derived from greens, generally used as an emulsifier in beauty merchandise. It’s mild on the pores and skin and helps to create a clean, creamy texture in shampoos. Stearyl alcohol is non-irritating and non-toxic, making it a protected different to DEA.
  • Cetyl Alcohol: One other vegetable-derived fatty alcohol, cetyl alcohol acts as an emollient, emulsifier, and thickening agent in canine shampoos. It’s well-tolerated by most pores and skin sorts and doesn’t pose the hormonal or carcinogenic dangers related to DEA. Cetyl alcohol contributes to the creaminess and lather of the shampoo with out compromising the pet’s well being.

Dr. Cuddles Pawfect Gloss™ Bubble Pet Shampoo is a vet-formulated and pH-balanced shampoo for canines and cats that provides soothing properties, courtesy of substances like hemp oil and yuzu extract. A mix of shea butter, aloe vera, and vitamin E nourishes delicate pores and skin. It’s bubbly creamy texture delivers a satisfying clear with none dangerous substances.

Dr. Cuddles Pawfect Gloss Bubble Pet Shampoo
  • Vet-formulated, pH-balanced shampoo
  • Makes use of soothing hemp oil and a mild yuzu scent
  • Camellia flower oil circumstances the coat
  • Shea butter, aloe vera, and vitamin E moisturize the pores and skin

#8 – Solvents

Solvents in canine shampoos are used to dissolve different substances and assist them mix right into a secure resolution. They play a task within the effectiveness and consistency of the shampoo.

Widespread Dangerous Solvent

  • Propylene Glycol: This can be a artificial solvent broadly utilized in many merchandise, together with canine shampoos, treats, and varied human meals. Its main perform is to behave as a humectant, making certain that merchandise retain moisture. Regardless of its widespread use, propylene glycol will be dangerous. It’s the primary ingredient in sure kinds of anti-freeze, which raises considerations about its security. Research have proven that propylene glycol could cause harm to the liver and kidneys with extended or high-level publicity. It might probably additionally result in pores and skin irritation and allergic reactions in some canines.

Protected Options

  • Vegetable Glycerin: Derived from plant oils like soy, coconut, or palm, vegetable glycerin is a pure and protected different to propylene glycol. It acts as a humectant, solvent, and emollient, offering moisture and enhancing the pores and skin’s hydration. Vegetable glycerin is non-toxic, mild, and appropriate for canines with delicate pores and skin.
  • Water: Essentially the most pure and most secure solvent, water is crucial in canine shampoos for successfully mixing and diluting substances. It doesn’t pose any well being dangers and is superb for making certain the shampoo’s consistency and ease of utility.

#9 – Bug Repellent Additive

Bug repellent components in canine shampoo substances lists are used to beat back pests like fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes. Whereas efficient, some frequent chemical components will be dangerous to canines.

RELATED: 8 Finest Insect Repellent for Canine

Widespread Dangerous Bug Repellent

  • DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide): DEET is a broadly used ingredient in lots of bug repellent merchandise for each people and pets. It’s identified for its effectiveness in repelling a variety of pests. Nonetheless, DEET will be harmful for canines. Extended or extreme publicity to DEET has been linked to neurological points, pores and skin irritation, and much more extreme issues like degenerative and congenital illnesses. The dangers are notably pronounced in canines on account of their behavior of licking their fur, which might result in ingestion of the chemical.

Protected Options

  • Citronella: This can be a pure oil extracted from the leaves and stems of various species of lemongrass. Citronella is understood for its pure insect-repellent properties. It’s protected for canines and offers a nice, refreshing scent.
  • Lemongrass Important Oil: Much like citronella, lemongrass important oil is efficient in repelling bugs and is protected to be used in canine shampoos. It ought to be utilized in diluted type to make sure it doesn’t irritate the canine’s pores and skin.
  • Lavender Important Oil: Recognized for its soothing properties, lavender oil additionally has pure insect-repelling qualities. It’s mild on the pores and skin and helps in calming anxious canines, in addition to offering safety towards bugs.
  • Rosemary Important Oil: Rosemary oil is one other pure possibility that may repel bugs. Richard’s Organics Flea and Tick Shampoo for Canine blends rosemary with different important oils to create a pure canine shampoo that kills and repels fleas and ticks.
Richard’s Organics Flea and Tick Shampoo for Dogs
  • Accommodates 5 pure oils for protected and efficient tick repellence
  • Mild formulation appropriate for canines with delicate pores and skin
  • Lathers properly for deep cleansing and pest elimination
  • Aids in relieving pores and skin irritation and discomfort
  • Calmly fragranced with important oils
  • Free from harsh chemical substances, soaps, and dyes

#10 – Formaldehyde

Formaldehyde is a preservative and disinfectant present in some canine shampoos. It’s used to stop the expansion of micro organism and delay shelf life. Its use raises important well being considerations.

Widespread Dangerous Results of Formaldehyde

  • Carcinogenic Properties: Formaldehyde is assessed as a carcinogen, which means it has the potential to trigger most cancers. Its presence in canine shampoos can pose a threat not simply to the canines but additionally to their mother and father, as it may be inhaled throughout tub time.
  • Pores and skin and Respiratory Irritation: Publicity to formaldehyde could cause pores and skin irritation and allergic reactions in canines. It might probably additionally irritate the respiratory tract, resulting in coughing and wheezing, which is especially regarding for canines with respiratory points.

Protected Options

  • Sodium Benzoate: This can be a pure preservative derived from benzoic acid present in fruits and spices. It’s efficient in stopping bacterial development and is a safer different to formaldehyde.
  • Potassium Sorbate: Derived from sorbic acid, which happens naturally in some berries, potassium sorbate is used to inhibit mildew and yeast development. It’s non-irritating and protected to be used in canine shampoos.

Skip formaldehyde and all the opposite dangerous shampoo substances with 4Legger USDA Licensed Natural Canine Shampoo. This shampoo just isn’t solely USDA licensed natural but additionally free from dangerous substances similar to formaldehyde, parabens, sulfates, and synthetic fragrances, making it a top-tier possibility in your canine’s skincare wants. Its natural formulation contains nourishing substances like coconut oil, olive oil, jojoba oil, and aloe vera, providing a mild but efficient cleansing. This protected and non-toxic tub expertise is right for canines with delicate pores and skin or these liable to allergic reactions.

4Legger USDA Certified Organic Dog Shampoo
  • Natural non-GMO oat kernel extracted oatmeal
  • Lavender and aloe assist soothe irritated pores and skin
  • Licensed to USDA Natural Human Meals Requirements
  • Artificial-free and detergent-free formulation
  • Earth pleasant and made with crops

#11 – Isopropyl Alcohol (Rubbing Alcohol)

Isopropyl Alcohol, generally often known as rubbing alcohol, is typically included in canine shampoo substances for its antiseptic properties. However it may be dangerous to canines.

Widespread Dangerous Results of Isopropyl Alcohol

  • Pores and skin Dryness and Irritation: Isopropyl alcohol can strip away pure oils from a canine’s pores and skin, resulting in dryness, irritation, and flakiness. It may be notably harsh on canines with delicate pores and skin.
  • Toxicity: If ingested, isopropyl alcohol will be poisonous to canines. On condition that canines usually lick their fur, the usage of isopropyl alcohol in shampoos poses a major threat.

Protected Options

  • Witch Hazel: This can be a mild different with antiseptic qualities. It soothes the pores and skin and is efficient in cleansing with out the cruel results of alcohol.
  • Aloe Vera: Recognized for its soothing and therapeutic properties, aloe vera is a superb different for offering mild, pure antiseptic advantages in canine shampoos. Pure Firm Oatmeal Delicate Pores and skin Shampoo options the tremendous soothing combo of oatmeal and aloe in an extra-gentle formulation made for puppies and sensitive-skin canines of all breeds, ages, and sizes. 
Natural Company Oatmeal Sensitive Skin Shampoo
  • Hypoallergenic, non-irritating formulation to appease irritated pores and skin
  • Aloe Vera, Colloidal Oatmeal, Chamomile, Manuka Honey
  • No sulfates, parabens, alcohols, toxins, or synthetic fragrances
  • Made with 100% pure substances
  • For canines of all ages and sizes

Embracing Canine Shampoos With out Dangerous Elements

As we conclude our exploration of canine shampoo substances, it’s clear the alternatives we make in pet grooming merchandise can considerably affect their well being and well-being. By choosing shampoos free from dangerous chemical substances like SLS, DEA, and Parabens, and embracing pure options, we not solely safeguard our canines’ pores and skin and coat but additionally contribute to their general well being. The journey to a more healthy life for our furry buddies begins with us, their mother and father. We encourage you to use this newfound data when choosing your subsequent canine shampoo, making certain that every tub not solely cleanses but additionally nurtures. Let’s commit to creating knowledgeable, accountable selections for our pups. Blissful grooming, and right here’s to the well being and happiness of your four-legged relations!

iHeartDogs is reader-supported. A number of the hyperlinks under could also be paid affiliate hyperlinks, the place we obtain a small fee on a product at no further price to you. 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *