- Dinosaur

I Know Dino Podcast: Tyrannosaurus Rex (Episode 1)

After months of researching, interviewing, and sharpening, we now have lastly launched our long-awaited I Know Dino podcast!

You’ll find our new, free podcast on iTunes at:


Our first episode options Pete Larson, president of the Black Hills Institute in South Dakota. Pete is a T-rex professional, and one of many principal individuals within the documentary Dinosaur 13:

When Paleontologist Peter Larson and his workforce from the Black Hills Institute made the world’s best dinosaur discovery in 1990, they knew it was the discover of a lifetime; the most important, most full T. rex ever discovered. However throughout a ten-year battle with the U.S. authorities, highly effective museums, Native American tribes, and competing paleontologists they discovered themselves not solely combating to maintain their dinosaur however combating for his or her freedom as nicely.

On this episode, we focus on:

  • Pete Larson, paleontologist and president of the Black Hills Institute of Geological Analysis in South Dakota. He led the excavation of the T-rex “Sue,” the most important and most full T-rex discovered.
  • The documentary, Dinosaur 13, got here out lately in regards to the excavation, detailing the federal authorities’s seizure of Sue, the 10-year lengthy authorized battle, how Black Hills got here collectively to struggle for Sue, and Larson’s 18 months in jail.
  • The dinosaur of the day is Tyrannosaurus Rex, which is historic Greek for “Tyrant Lizard.”
  • T-rex lived throughout the late Cretaceous interval, in western North America (on the time an island continent known as Laramidia)
  • T-rexwas one of many largest identified land predators; as much as 40 ft in size, 13 ft tall on the hips, and 6.8 metric tons
  • T-rex was in all probability a predator and a scavenger, and was estimated to have one of many largest chew forces amongst all terrestrial animals
  • Scientists used to assume T-rex walked upright and dragged its tail (a “residing tripod”) however now they assume the tail as off the bottom, as seen in Jurassic Park.
  • Henry Fairfield Osborn, the previous president of the American Museum of Pure Historical past, was satisfied T-rex stood upright and unveiled the primary full T-rex skeleton this fashion in 1915. It stood on this upright pose for 77 years, till 1992.
  • T-rex in all probability had feathers, at the least on components of its physique.
  • T-rex had enhanced eyesight, listening to, and sense of odor (similar to fashionable vultures), and will observe prey actions from lengthy distances.
  • T-rex might have had pack habits.
  • Enjoyable Reality:  The time between when Stegosaurus lived and when T-rex lived is longer than the time between when T-rex lived and now.

For individuals who might choose studying, see under for the complete transcript of our first episode (together with the interview with Pete Larson):

Garret:  Hey and welcome to I do know Dino. I’m Garret.

Sabrina:  And I’m Sabrina.

Garret: And we’re dinosaur fans, we wish to share our love of dinosaurs with all people and speak about some enjoyable dinosaurs details, fascinating issues which are found as they’re found. So, right this moment our subject goes to revolve round Tyrannosaurus Rex, probably the most fashionable dinosaurs in fashionable tradition.

Sabrina:  So, we had an opportunity to interview Pete Larson, a paleontologist and president of the Black Hills Institute of Geological Analysis in South Dakota, which Garret and I had been fortunate sufficient to have the ability to go to once we drove throughout the nation. And Pete Larson led the excavation of the T-Rex Sue, which is the most important and most full T-Rex discovered.

Garret:  Attention-grabbing factor in regards to the Black Hills Institute, once we had been driving by way of South Dakota, it was really throughout the Sturgis Bike Rally and we needed to park a number of blocks away from this place and also you had been strolling down the road and also you had been searching for a museum, you expect a big constructing and I don’t know possibly some columns or one thing, at the least an enormous signal. It’s a very unassuming constructing, it was once I believe a gymnasium and also you go in and it was like entering into a distinct world from this loopy biker rally.

Sabrina:  So despite the fact that it was a small institute it was stuffed with a ton of fossils and really useful individuals prepared to speak about dinosaurs all day lengthy. I extremely advocate going there in case you get an opportunity and you might be in South Dakota.

Garret: We had been happy to search out out that a number of the most well-known T-rex fossils had been discovered within the space round this Black Hills Institute in South Dakota, Wyoming they usually really nonetheless have one on show there, which is admittedly neat.

Sabrina:  And now right here is our interview with Pete Larson.

Sabrina: How did you resolve to turn out to be a paleontologist?

Pete Larson: Nicely, I suppose I used to be fascinated with fossils since I picked up my first fossil after I was about 4. And it was a tooth—It was clearly a tooth, however it was black. Why was it black? [LAUGHTER] And so I went into the native museum and a gal there by the identify of June Seidner [ph] who—She and her husband personal the museum—sort of took me underneath her wing and began instructing me about fossils and loaning me books, and I used to be hooked. It was throughout from them on.

Sabrina: What’s it about dinosaurs that you just assume fascinates you probably the most?

Pete Larson: I believe paleontologists have what we name—what I wish to name a Peter Pan syndrome. We by no means actually grew up. We’re nonetheless these little youngsters who’re fascinated by lifeless issues and by issues which have been lifeless for a extremely very long time, issues that had been actual and actually—actually and actually monsters. Fossils are fascinating, however dinosaurs are much more fascinating. There’s simply one thing so unusual for the creativeness as a result of there’s nothing actually like them residing right this moment. We now have a few of their descendants in birds. There’s no chicken that weighs ten tons. There’s no—They simply don’t—They don’t get that massive anymore. And I believe that—when you begin entering into it, it’s simply that fascination with the world as a distinct place. We turn out to be time-travelers. We take a look at issues in a means that sort of opens our creativeness in a means that only a few different sciences let you do. Now, after all, there are issues like astronomy the place you possibly can think about what it’s wish to dwell on one other planet. However the cool factor right here is that we don’t all the time have to make use of—It’s not simply all creativeness. It’s—We now have tons of proof and plenty and many locations on this planet the place we are able to go and see that historic life, in what stays in what we name fossils. So I mentioned that for me, at the least, it’s that fascination and issues like a child. I imply I simply—I by no means grew up. I’m a really fortunate individual.

Sabrina: [LAUGHTER] And what are a few of your favourite forms of dinosaurs? Do you’ve gotten any favorites?

Pete Larson: Nicely, after all, T-Rex. [ LAUGHTER]

Sabrina: Proper.

Pete Larson: T-Rex, Tyrannosaurus. As a result of that’s what I examine. Fossils are a number of the most fascinating very early [INAUDIBLE] animals with these little cute arms and massive leg muscle mass that allowed them to run actually quick, and these big enamel that wouldn’t essentially must take bites out of all the pieces. He may swallow fairly a little bit of stuff simply complete. [LAUGHTER and INAUDIBLE] And I imply simply—They’re—Simply in regards to the biomechanics of this animal that’s like nothing that’s actually on earth right this moment to attempt to perceive how it will—How briskly it will—How it will seize its prey. Conduct. We now have some hints and clues within the fossil file. We now have scars on the bones the place tendons hooked up muscle mass to bones, and we are able to observe these again by fashionable animals in order that we are able to get some sort of an concept of biomechanics and physiology of those animals. However it’s nonetheless lots of theorizing and even hypothesis that goes into it and this form of factor. So it simply—I don’t know—It simply retains you fascinated about issues that standard world doesn’t do in a means that these animals have so a lot of unanswered questions. I believe that’s what retains finds going, unanswered questions. Possibly we are able to discover the reply to this query. After which, after all, as soon as you discover the reply to that query, it raises ten new questions. So it’s a endless sequence that will get performed out, which is simply great.

Sabrina: So that you don’t assume that each one the questions will ever be answered?

Pete Larson: Nicely, it’s will not be precise. Particularly in observational science. In observational science, not—Not like arithmetic the place we do know what the sq. root of two is as a result of we invented arithmetic—However in contrast to math, though we [often mention?] arithmetic in our observations as nicely observing the pure world, however nonetheless I believed, as an example, that we may decide—There have to be a strategy to decide the intercourse of a dinosaur. And I used to be significantly Tyrannosaurus Rex. I got here up with an concept. [INAUDIBLE] work by different individuals like Alfred Sherwood Romer and different individuals who had checked out fashionable animals, crocodilians, lizards, principally crocodilians, and had observed that there appears to be a distinction within the form and placement of the primary chevron, the primary U-arch which is a bone that’s on the underside of the tail. The primary one, which is one closest to the pelvis. When was that, I did just a little little bit of—With a number of specimens we now have, which was principally there was one specimen, now it’s two—And seemed like its form was like mole, however—Two extra specimens have been discovered and me utilizing that and truly publishing on it—Once you current a concept—A speculation and then you definitely flip it right into a concept and also you current that concept to the scientific neighborhood. The scientific neighborhood then, their job is to falsify that, to see whether it is—If they’ll make it as incorrect as you possibly can. It’s nearly not possible to say one thing is reality. We method the reality. However it’s attainable to say, ‘That doesn’t work.’ So a colleague of mine, Bern Gerrigson [ph], and one of many college students seemed into this after which invited me on a venture. Because it seems, my authentic speculation was incorrect. The chevron form and placement don’t have anything to do with the intercourse of the animal. It’s considerably random, so it in all probability wouldn’t work with dinosaurs as nicely. Our mannequin there have been Alligator mississippiensis, best [INAUDIBLE]—Simple for him, he has tons and many skeletons which have totally different intercourse. However there are different hypotheses I’ve been engaged on. One is that—One factor I proposed fairly some time in the past and Mary Schweitzer really proved was that medullary bone is typically preserved within the fossil. Medullary bone is current in right this moment’s birds solely in females and solely throughout ovulation. It’s bone that’s deposited in a really unfastened community inside medullary cavities, issues just like the femurs first. That bone is used—The chicken makes use of that when it’s creating egg shells. Egg shells are calcium carbon, so it takes in bones hydropolapotatis [ph]. It’s supply of calcium. So she was really capable of finding stuff on Tyrannosaurus Rex, apparently sufficient, that had medullary bone inside the cavity of the femur. It matched the medullary bone in extant birds, and she or he proved that one was feminine. And from there—I used that data —I simply had data to progress one other a part of my speculation which was that birds—meat-eating dinosaurs—Dinosaurs and Triceratops and their residing kinfolk, birds, have similarities. Any birds have—You possibly can really weigh an grownup chicken and discover out what intercourse it’s. It’s known as sexual measurement dimorphism. Now, sexual measurement dimorphism could also be within the case of one thing like an ostrich the place the male is bigger than the feminine in the identical factor. Or it could be, as within the case of Anseriformes, that are geese and geese, and nearly all birds of prey, it seems that the feminine is the heavier and the bigger of the dinosaurs. And my hypothesis was that like birds of prey, theropods, the feminine was in all probability simply extra strong kind. To check this, I measured the size and circumference of the femur and plotted it on a graph: so there one axis is the size of the femur and one axis is the circumference of the femur. And T-Rex and a lot of different at the least Tyrannosaur theropods plotted out two divergent strains. In order the animal reaches maturity, they go into two totally different strains the place you’ve gotten one which has a femur elevated in size and one will get a a lot larger girth. And my speculation was that one was an even bigger girth was a feminine. And after I plotted specimen that Mary Schweizer was in a position to present had a medullary bone, it plotted in with extra strong types, the larger ones. So the largest—This was my concept from that then is that the largest and baddest of all T-Rexes had been females. And so—[LAUGHTER]. Kind of present you the road on reasoning that goes in.  And so the way in which to falsify that then is to search out one medullary bone that’s within the graphil [ph] group. There’s different circumstantial proof that makes me imagine that, together with the forms of accidents to the tail, the tails of Tyrannosaurs are these strong types all the time appear to have accidents proper on the base of the tail which is feasible throughout copulation as a result of these are massive animals, there could be ligament tears, there could be damaged bones, there could be a lot of various things that may occur. In order that additionally matches in with that sample. There’s a few different issues I’ll be searching for particulars that additionally slot in with that sample.

Sabrina: Yeah, I’ve a number of questions on T-Rex because you’re a T-Rex professional. So I’ve learn a number of various things. Some individuals assume T-Rex is extra of a scavenger and others assume he’s extra of a predator.

Pete Larson: Nicely, they’re each proper. Massive-bodied carnivores are, for probably the most half, there are only a few obligant predators. Most of them will scavenge. Once you get a free meal, there’s no sense risking. Half the time once you’re searching one thing, you’re taking an enormous threat of harm. And an enormous threat of not success—Of not with the ability to achieve success in your hunt. So issues like lions, hyenas, bears, canines, all—The entire group—Each—All birds of prey, which incorporates, after all, vultures, and that may—Which have been—Anyway, they’re really a bunch of storks, many, many different birds additionally scavenge who would really hunt as nicely. The rationale I believe that—We now have good proof to assist that they did hunt. We now have specimens that received away. Various [INAUDIBLE] dinosaurs and a lot of triceratops that present heel accidents that might solely be inflicted by Tyrannosaurus Rex, together with a comparatively current specimen which Robert D. Pullman, myself, and others described lately. It was a fossil the place there was two [INAUDIBLE] tail vertebrae that had fused collectively and in fu—Inside that fusion, there was a damaged [INAUDIBLE] rectitude that might have solely gotten in when the animal was alive. Why? As a result of that harm was healed, so it received away. It received away. And until any person walked as much as—As Jack Horner prompt, nicely, T-Rex in all probability simply walked as much as it and thought it was dying or lifeless and was really asleep, and it bit, and it ran away—Until you’ve gotten one thing— Reasonably foolish rationalization for that. And there’re—It’s a number of proof. That’s one response to [INAUDIBLE] too important. However there may be a number of proof of accidents, healed accidents that appear very clearly inflicted by the chew of the Tyrannosaurus Rex. However so there’s—One other little bit of proof, there aren’t any large-bodied obligant scavengers current right this moment. Why would we predict there can be some previously? There are solely a sure variety of niches, organic niches, that may be crammed. On land, the one—The closes factor to obligant scavengers we now have is a bunch known as vultures that are associated to storks and never associated to eagles and stuff. Nicely, they’re associated to eagles as a result of they’re birds and stuff. However vultures—However even vultures, after they’re hungry, they’ll kill issues. And the argument was made that whereas vultures have a extremely—A particularly good sense of odor—Truly, no chicken has a extremely good sense of odor—The Turkey vultures are actually the one vultures which have sense of odor. However we don’t—You don’t want sense of odor to odor that one thing’s lifeless. And most scavenging happens earlier than the carcass is rotting. In order that’s sort of not an excellent argument that simply because T-Rexes have a extremely, actually wonderful sense of odor. Canine, then again, have in all probability the perfect sense of odor of any mammal, the group known as canines. They usually use that sense of odor to hunt prey. Additionally they like to roll in lifeless issues.[LAUGHTER] And issues like hyenas that are thought to have been scavengers really kill extra their prey extra even than the lions do. So there isn’t a [INAUDIBLE] in scavenging in any extent types. So why would there be in fossil ones?

Sabrina: Proper. That is smart.

Pete Larson: And once you say T-Rex and all their kin, so all of these animals, they’re all scavengers? I don’t assume so. There wouldn’t be sufficient stuff to eat if they only waited for them to die. Once you’re hungry, you exit and kill one thing. They did—They might scavenge. There’s no purpose to imagine they wouldn’t scavenge. However did additionally—They had been additionally lively predators.

Sabrina: Did they have an inclination to stay collectively in teams or had been they extra solo?

Pete Larson: We now have—For T-Rex, we now have some proof. A few of their kinfolk, they’re known as Albertosaurus on Dry Island in Alberta, they discovered proof of eight of these animals collectively. That’s a Tyrannosaurus intently associated to T-Rex, just a little bit earlier, just a little bit smaller. However with T-Rex, we even have—There’s—There are three situations the place multiple—Components of multiple—Truly, 4—Three—4 situations the place multiple particular person has been reported discovered collectively. So it appears seemingly that they maybe travelled in group, whether or not it was a household group or one thing of that order. We don’t know. I anticipate it could be a household group. Some smaller teams, not massive teams. And different proof for different Tyrannosaurs, like Nanotyrannus, we discover websites the place there are 30 or extra Nanotyrannus enamel at one kills web site or feeding web site. And one animal couldn’t lose 30 enamel in a single feeding.

Sabrina: What’s a typical day like for you?

Pete Larson: Summer time or winter? Within the winter, I’m normally within the lab and mounting dinosaurs, ordering the workplace, engaged on contracts. Additionally, we do—We used to do a lot of commerce exhibits, we’re sort of down to 1 now, so it’s only a normal [member?] present we do. We’re there for about two weeks and we arrange an exhibit, speak to individuals, and promote stuff, that form of factor. So—In the summertime, I’m out within the area rather a lot. So I’m searching for dinosaurs, in addition to digging them up.

Sabrina: So I’ve a few questions in regards to the Black Hills Institute particularly. I do know that you just guys are chargeable for in all probability a lot of the T-Rex casts in museums around the globe. So what are a number of the extra well-known ones?

Pete Larson: Let’s see. We now have—There’s one within the Smithsonian Establishment. There’s—We now have one at Manchester College. We now have a lot of totally different museums in Japan. We now have—There’s like—I’m making an attempt to recollect—Greater than 50 skeletons. [INAUDIBLE] skeletons 50 or so? Extra? 50 plus. Plus then we now have a number of skeletons of T-Rex known as Bucky. So Stan and Bucky are the 2. We now have—There’s Youngsters’s Museum in Indianapolis,  Houston Museum of Nature and Science. There’s some English ones—My mind isn’t working too nicely right this moment. However we now have one in Spain, we now have one in Italy, and there’s one in Leighton, Holland. There’s a pair in Korea additionally. Not less than one is Seoul, Korea after which one other—One or two. There’s one within the—There’s one or—There’s two really within the Nationwide Museum in Tokyo, Nationwide Museum in Japan. There’s one within the [INAUDIBLE] Prefectural Museum, there’s one in Kuli [ph], there’s one in Osaka, I imagine. There’s—Simply sort of throughout. [INAUDIBLE] massive skeletons.

Sabrina: Do these museums contact you and say, ‘We would like a solid’ or how does that work?

Pete Larson: Just about, yeah. By means of phrase of mouth. Or we now have a web site, too, bhigr.com. And we—So it’s principally phrase of mouth. So museums discover out about us.

Sabrina: Is the museum making these casts fairly repeatedly?

Pete Larson: Sure. We now have, proper now, one thing round 20 some individuals. We had as many as 35, possibly extra. And it is dependent upon the final—The final recession sort of minimize—We needed to in the reduction of a bit, however issues are getting higher now. And so we’re doing—Even now, we’re doing a number of T-Rex skeletons a yr. We’re simply doing one now for a museum in China.

Sabrina: What’s the method for making a solid?

Pete Larson: The method is—After all, you need to have a skeleton to mould. So initially, you need to put together a T-Rex skeleton after which create the mould so you can also make principally clones of the bones. These molds, you need to pour solid. And we use [INAUDIBLE], foaming and non-foaming resonance. So that they’re plastic. We additionally must create inside fill frameworks. So there’s drilling, typically slicing of the solid bones which permits to place these fill in to assist the bones. After which with the intention to—There’s a design section the place you’re employed with the museum that comes up with the pose and we make it possible for it’s—We do the engineering of it, however they attempt to give you an concept for the pose which we both recommend few totally different prospects or they give you one thing that we work collectively to make it possible for it’s physiologically attainable for the animal to do it there—What they’re asking. After which the mounting takes place the place we create that armature. Every of these mounts should be performed in a modular trend as a result of they’re mounted right here on the Establishment and shifted [INAUDIBLE]. As soon as they’re performed—As soon as the mounting is finished, we now have to do some—Mainly, filling of locations the place we’ve needed to minimize the bones aside and simply principally, sort of making it look good once more in so there’s no screws. After which your complete specimen is painted to appear to be the unique bone. After which the specimen is crated, which can be—We now have to create brackets, mounting brackets for every of the items, particular person items of the dinosaur which are then put in crates and the crates are shipped out. After which we now have to create a video. Most of museums are in a position to mount them themselves. Generally they ask for a number of of us to go and assist, however normally it’s fairly simple they usually can really put them collectively. If we do a mount, as soon as we now have a specimen within the museum and uncrated, normally it takes about an hour to place it up.

Sabrina: What occurs when you’ve made the mould with the precise bones? What occurs to the actual bones afterwards?

Pete Larson: The actual bones for Stan are in a museum right here. Like I mentioned, we now have a museum the place that’s the unique Stan exhibit for individuals to come back to see. The unique of Bucky was bought to the Youngsters’s Museum of Indianapolis, so that they have the unique in Indianapolis, a full fossil for individuals to see. So the unique is finally mounted and—We even have one other [INAUDIBLE]. So the unique—We present solid and the unique is in a museum in Houston.

Sabrina: So going again to T-Rexes actual fast, what sort of mother or father had been they? I do know—I heard—Or I learn someplace earlier than that Triceratops might have attacked the infants, so possibly in consequence there have been extra nurturing mother and father? However—

Pete Larson: If we take a look at birds of prey. That’s in all probability the perfect instance. Birds of prey will take care their chicks as much as a sure level. It’s a really strenuous a part of their life, which is why it takes each of them to do this and which basically discovering a number of—Websites of a number of T-Rexes, I take it there’s good probability that in addition they had parental care they usually stayed collectively due to that parental care. There’s no—And we additionally had discovered smaller—Components of smaller T-Rexes with the larger T-Rexes, which exhibits that they had been at the least collectively throughout their time of loss of life, which signifies that they probably, very seemingly had been collectively as they died collectively as nicely. So it’s—I believe that had parental care. It’s one thing that’s very troublesome to show conclusively, however there’s some circumstantial proof that signifies that they in all probability did have some form of parental care. Plus, meat-eating dinosaurs, theropod dinosaurs, those the place we discovered [INAUDIBLE], we additionally discovered some situations mother and father becoming, incubating the egg, sitting on the nest. In order that’s parental care earlier than beginning additionally.

Sabrina: Simply theropods? No different sorts?

Pete Larson: There’s some indication that different teams maybe had parental care as nicely due to how [INAUDIBLE] hanging round their nest for some time. However that’s Jack Horner stuff. Topic Jack Horner is working.

Sabrina: How do you are feeling about films that function dinosaurs in them, like Jurassic Park and [INAUDIBLE]? Is there lots of stuff that’s sort of inconsistent with what science’s discovered to be true?

Pete Larson: Nicely, films are films. I like the truth that we are able to take a look at these animals as residing people. Films are in a position to recede the attention [with this?] probably the most convincing and, I considering, very reasonable, but very powerfully mimics what the dinosaurs themselves had been like. Which, once more, that’s the Peter Pan syndrome.

Sabrina: Let’s see. For Triceratops. I had—I do know there’s been stories that possibly it was really a juvenile Torosaurus? Is there any proof but of—If it was an actu—

Pete Larson: [CROSSTALK] There’s a lot of papers now, lots of people are engaged on this. It was query. It’s all the time good to ask a query. That’s what a attainable state of affairs—Suggest a speculation. So Jack Horner and John—Scan—Scan, what’s his final identify—Anyway, what they proposed was fairly a possible state of affairs that positively must be invistigated. I believe I don’t agree with their conclusion. I don’t imagine {that a} Torosaurus was really an grownup Triceratops Hornus. There’s lots of causes for that, a lot of that are revealed. We collected lots of Triceratops. And Toros—Morphology of Torosaurus may be very totally different from the skulls—Very totally different than the skulls of Triceratops. They solely get massive Torosaurus, roughly, however there they’re. Partial Torosaurus are a lot smaller. We now have a semi-adult right here. It’s about—A little bit massive larger than a typical full grownup triceratops hornus. Triceratops hornus is a a lot smaller measurement, has a really coarse and tough texture to the bones. Youthful ones are easy. Torosaurus is—The [INAUDIBLE] texture of this Torosaurus cranium—By the way in which, grownup Torosaurus skulls do the identical factor, they get that very coarse texture. However this explicit Torosaurus cranium, which [INAUDIBLE] versus regular six-and-a-half foot lengthy regular Triceratops hornus cranium. Very easy texture. There’s plenty of [dirty?] element. Characters. Anatomical variations that separate them, together with the form of the muzzle, form of the nasals, premaxilla, very totally different premaxilla. Simply a lot of characters—Simply—You must change all these things. And why do you’ve gotten this grownup texture on these animals that are supposedly nonetheless rising and are going to develop one other—The largest Torosaurus cranium is like 9 ft lengthy. It’s big. Whereas Triceratops solely will get to be six and a half—Possibly would possibly make seven ft lengthy, however I’ve by no means seen fairly so [INAUDIBLE] Triceratops. So—

Sabrina: I do know you had been a part of a dig that concerned—What’s it, three Triceratops in Wyoming final yr?

Pete Larson: There-s—Yeah, there’s really 4. Going again to the location, we—It’s an enormous web site, so we’re unable to get it completed, plus we had a T-Rex to dig and stuff, so we had been unable to do as a lot stuff there as we had hoped.

Sabrina: So you need to wait till summer season?

Pete Larson: [CROSSTALK]—Again on the market. We’ll be again on the market in Could.

Sabrina: Could.

Pete Larson: It’s fascinating as a result of there’s actually no—These animals, due to some partial articulation in issues, the bones are very concentrated inside an space that’s three meters lengthy and at the least 20 meters vast, there’s an element that’s 30 meters vast additionally, possibly larger. They clearly died collectively as they lived collectively. Triceratopses are identified—Triceratopses have been know normally for the actual fact—Up till this time, solely single specimens. There had been a few occurrences the place by way of stream aggregation, by way of simply excessive accumulation of bones, there’ve been components of multiple present in sure areas, however they weren’t anyplace close to full animals and had been fairly clearly washed into place. That—In order that we are able to’t faux that they lived collectively. So most thought that triceratops was an remoted kind that lived by itself. It’s simply so fascinating as a result of there’s 4 totally different sizes, two adults ones, just a bit bit smaller than the opposite, two sub-adults, nearly—You possibly can nearly name them juveniles, smaller ones. These animals characterize three totally different age teams. So what had been they doing collectively? I don’t know. However it raises some prospects. Possibly household group for defense. As a result of in case you have multiple Triceratops, that’s simply so great. [INAUDIBLE] individuals. You bought T-Rexes they usually kind circle they usually pull [INAUDIBLE] into circles and thrust back T-Rexes. One chance. There’s security in numbers. I don’t assume they ever fashioned very giant herds as a result of we had seen bones beds, like a number of the ceratopsian in a single beds of Canada after which [INAUDIBLE] bone beds from Canada and right here in the US and different locations. [INAUDIBLE]—The place we now have a whole lot and typically 1000’s of people collectively. [INAUDIBLE]—Triceratops which appears unlikely they had been a part of one heard. However these animals are totally different. Kind of model new bit of data which adjustments our concepts on what Triceratops had been like.

Sabrina: It looks like lots of perceptions of how dinosaurs behaved and even seemed like and stuff have modified rather a lot within the final 10-20 years. Does that—Is it all the time altering a lot?

Pete Larson: The change that occurred within the final 20 years, I believe, was caused by curiosity in dinosaurs the final 20-30 years [INAUDIBLE] Again within the 70s—Truly, it’s in all probability 40 years, the final 40 years, we’ve had a dinosaur renaissance. This has been fed by the films. Films have stored the general public due to public’s curiosity in [INAUDIBLE] scientists who make discoveries to let the general public know that these discoveries are being made as a result of it helps the curiosity in dinosaurs go on. Due to that, individuals are extra more likely to really get out within the area and wish to make some discoveries. The museums are very keen on their workers. There are some situations to have it staffed to attempt to get some publicity, get individuals come see them, so that they wish to have dinosaurs coming there, which is what helps our enterprise, after all. However it additionally signifies that scientists—As a result of the curiosity in dinosaurs is up, scientists are in a position to get funding for his or her work. And so it is a actually good factor. The Jurassic Park films have been good for everyone. Not solely does it give individuals like me, give individuals like me the chance to see the dinosaurs within the flesh, so to talk, not simply in my thoughts, however on the display. It offers the general public that chance. And since the general public has that chance, they’re in a position—Or, they preserve their curiosity as a result of there’s one thing knew they’re studying. So we now have locations like Liaoning, China, this excellent late deposit which has produced all of those feathered dinosaurs and simply double, in some methods, lots of the knowledge on the ecology that the animals had been round firstly of the Cretaceous. So that they each feed one another, and the extra discoveries are made, the more cash is on the market for the discoveries, which makes then discoveries extra attainable to be made. And since there’s so little we find out about these animals—We now have 1000’s, and 1000’s, and 1000’s of dinosaur species which have but to be found. There are occasions when—Geologic occasions that aren’t nicely preserved within the fossil file or preserved in areas which are very distant that individuals haven’t but explored. So all people—Paleontologist needs to be making discoveries to assist justify your existence, to assist usher in funding and assist get again within the area once more. So all of this isn’t simply self-serving, it’s self-feeding and it’s self-perpetuating. It’s one thing that enables us—These companies of discovering dinosaurs and describing dinosaurs, placing dinosaurs in museums, it helps to fund that.

Sabrina: So what’s a typical dinosaur dig like?

Pete Larson: Not like Jurassic Park. So usually you’re away from—You’re tenting out as a result of—Not solely as a result of it’s simply good to get out and camp out. However you’re tenting out since you’re away from city. You’re out in [INAUDIBLE], out within the Badlands, out the place the bottom is [INAUDIBLE] in a rustic like Mongolia. You must take all of your stuff with you. You possibly can possibly make a visit into city each now and again, however you possibly can’t go each evening and have—Keep at a lodge and have a dinner at an area restaurant. There’s some individuals who do this, however it will get costly. And apart from, it’s far more enjoyable to simply be out within the area. So we appear to rise up early, we might must knock off throughout two hours within the afternoon as a result of it will get too sizzling as a result of out right here within the West in the summertime, it will probably simply be over 100 levels. We now have unhealthy storms that come by way of. We now have most of our rains and thunderstorms—Moisture from thunderstorms. It will possibly go proper previous, it will probably go proper by way of you. You’ve typically little or no time to cowl up your web site. Generally it’s not [invitable?] to cowl up the location both. However you could be rained in. We now have—Particularly working within the spring, you’re rained in for days at a time the place you possibly can’t do something. You’re fortunate simply to have cell service. Within the outdated days we had no cell service, after all. However not all of our websites—Most don’t have cell service and we now have to go up on prime of a hill to make cellphone name. Which is OK, being away from the phone and computer systems is usually a actually good factor after some time.

Sabrina: So how do you establish the place to dig?

Pete Larson: You must see one thing on the floor. There’s—You possibly can dig a gap anyplace you need, and the probabilities of discovering a dinosaur bone are about as near zero as something can presumably be, even in case you’re in the correct of rock. So you need to see one thing uncovered on the floor. And that within the [INAUDIBLE] formation the place we had been, mainly tiny fragments of bone which range from the rock and [encouraged?] by colour and texture. Often. In the event that they don’t range, you’re not going to see them. And so then you’ve gotten to have the ability to establish what you’re . Particularly –It’s nearly all the time simply fragments. What sort of animal it’s from. Whether or not it’s a meat-eating dinosaur, [plant?]-eating dinosaur, or a dinosaur in any respect. And hopefully you possibly can take a look at it and check out—A bit that may assist to inform the species or inform you that it could be one thing new. Then you definately observe that items again up the hill to attempt to discover the place they’re coming from. Generally yow will discover the place they’re coming from, typically you possibly can’t. Even in case you dig an enormous trench, you continue to might not discover the place it’s coming from. However within the case of huge dinosaurs, like T-Rex, you possibly can normally discover the place they’re coming from and then you definitely start the excavation. You take a look at the geology and decide what your likelihood is, what hid stream stream route to see what may need moved—The place bones may need moved and the way rapidly. [INAUDIBLE]—A lot of the dinosaurs we discover are disarticulated which suggests bones aren’t collectively as they had been when the animal was residing. However there’s a lot gathered and so you’ve gotten look fastidiously [in location?] to search out an articulated—However that’s very uncommon. And so then you need to have a plan of digging it to take over it at first since you need to have the ability to transfer ahead rapidly when you begin airing the bones as a result of lots of these bones lay out—As soon as their floor is uncovered, the extra probability of harm of you simply strolling throughout the display, or stumping or falling down, or cow coming at evening strolling throughout it, or a rainstorm, or simply the wind blowing little items away. We now have to connect the bones as they’re uncovered and a number of occasions, utilizing [INAUDIBLE] glue and utilizing issues like [INAUDIBLE] Acetate to assist create sort of protecting coating on the bones. After which we dig round them and get them into smaller bundles after which put area jackets on them defending bones [INAUDIBLE] first. After which we flip the jacks over and take them out.

Sabrina: It sounds very sophisticated. However—[LAUGHTER]

Pete Larson: It’s not fairly rocket science, however you need to have—It takes the largest key’s expertise first and recognizing what you’re and determining the way you’re going to excavate it. And having expertise is the one means you possibly can be taught that. You possibly can’t be taught that in school.

Sabrina: Once you exit on digs, is it usually with people who find themselves fairly skilled?

Pete Larson: Sure. I imply we do have volunteers additionally. Probably—A lot of our volunteers have had fairly a little bit of expertise. And sometimes we now have any person new that desires to be taught, possibly even a Grasp’s scholar or one thing like that desires to come back and learn to do their job. [LAUGHTER] And let’s say, it’s a course of that takes—The longer you do it, the extra you do it, the higher you might be at it. The higher you’re—The extra your guesses flip into one thing—An inexpensive speculation quite than simply pure hypothesis. And so it’s like something, the extra you do it, the higher you might be at it. Conversely, in case you have somebody who’s discovered in some the old-fashioned methodology of doing factor that aren’t prepared to alter or to strive new strategies. Additionally, it’s essential to have an open thoughts, to attempt to discover all the time higher methods to do issues. And in case you have any person who’s set of their methods, they don’t make fossil hunter. They don’t make fossil digger as a result of they’re going to make the identical errors over, and over, and over once more and never going to be taught from them. So you need to have any person who’s sure. They must be versatile they usually must be creative, they’ve to have the ability to—To have an creativeness, to sort of venture, to see underground with out assistance from an X-ray or the rest like that to attempt to—I’m looking for the correct phrase right here—To attempt to predict what they’re going to search out and the way it’s going to be laying. You’ll by no means know till you dig it up, however you possibly can have a fairly good concept of what’s occurring. In case you have a you’ve gotten sufficient expertise at this. If you realize what to do with every, every fossil. It’s an entity to itself and it has a sure—There are particular issues about it which are distinctive to that fossil that you’ve got to have the ability to incorporate into your understanding of what’s occurring right here. You wish to all the time be waiting for smooth tissue preservation, which is a really uncommon prevalence, however it does occur. However you possibly can miss it in case you don’t have that at the back of your mind. Issues like that.

Sabrina: How would you deal with it in case you discovered one thing with some smooth tissue?

Pete Larson: You deal with it otherwise. You don’t—The portion that exhibits smooth tissue, you don’t want to make use of any conservation medium on it until there’s no different means to reserve it. And in case you’re saving, you continue to—Even when you need to use a conservation media on most of it to reserve it, you wish to make it possible for there are space that you just didn’t use the conservation media on as a result of with the intention to examine smooth tissue, one of many issues that we have to do is we have to protect the chemistry of that. There’re nonetheless proteins which are preserved in a few of these fossils that in case you begin including chemical substances to it, you possibly can alter these proteins. Or you possibly can introduce proteins. If I glue one thing and maintain a chunk of it with my finger after which I pull my finger away, after all, I’m going to depart a few of my pores and skin there. You’re including genetic materials. And also you simply must be very, very cautious, in reality, even simply touching issues with in case you’re taking samples that might be used later. You all the time must look forward—Assume forward to preserving the chemistry—The chemical integrity of that specimen as nicely.

Sabrina: For brand spanking new species which are found—I suppose I considered this as a result of I noticed the Hadrosaur, the primary Hadrosaur fossil present in New Jersey and I believe it’s in Philadelphia, someplace—However it was fascinating as a result of they solely discovered a pair giant bones, and but they had been in a position to determine what the entire dinosaur in all probability seemed like. So I used to be simply questioning how do you work that out?

Pete Larson: Hadrosaur is a full man, which is the one you’re speaking about, really there was fairly a bit there. They’d just a little cranium, not giant. However they’d fairly a—Sure consultant bones from legs, and arms, and issues, and vertebrae, ribs, and issues. And naturally, the unique texture has been altered considerably as to what they thought. They usually had been evaluating it to some dinosaurs that had been discovered earlier in Europe, the Iguanodons, a number of the early English and Belgian dinosaurs. However it was the primary dinosaur described from North America.

Sabrina: Nice.

Pete Larson: And in case you look—It’s actually fascinating to look again within the literature and take a look at restorations that individuals have performed, and take a look at the outdated historic artwork work and the way it’s modified. You possibly can see the development of science in that artwork.

Sabrina: I suppose in case you had been to explain a brand new species right this moment, however you solely had a few fossils, one or two possibly, you’d simply base what you thought the entire thing seemed like primarily based on comparable dinosaurs you already know exist?

Pete Larson: Kind of, sure. You simply discover a number of components and you may—When it comes to the connection of dinosaurs, it’s not an enormous stretch of the creativeness once you use them to check to attempt to reconstruct what’s the remaining—it’s a Ceratopsian dinosaur, there’s some—There are various clues within the skeleton that you just don’t must have the entire skeleton earlier than you realize roughly what the entire animal’s going to appear to be. However you’re not going to get all the pieces proper since you don’t have sufficient knowledge. However you’re going to get the overall physique form, you possibly can determine the dimensions, potential weight of that animal. You possibly can determine what—Even in case you don’t have a cranium, you possibly can know roughly what that cranium goes to appear to be, though you might—If it’s a horned dinosaur, you possibly can select a improper mannequin from the horned dinosaurs, until you’ve received some hints as to what you’re . However there’s—It’s a—That’s nearly extra an interpellation quite than an extrapolation as a result of we now have that tree of life which we’re continuously including to to assist us to grasp the place of this explicit species, the place that it sits into in that tree of life. And in order that additionally—That enables us to then attempt to perceive extra about [INAUDIBLE] and issues even due to the work that’s been performed on their kinfolk. So there’s rather a lot that may be performed even with very fragmentary fossils.

Sabrina: So I suppose, going again to how our perceptions of dinosaurs have modified a lot within the final couple a long time, I’ve been studying issues like possibly we may determine what colour a few of them had been and there’s the entire thing in regards to the feathers. However now, there’s a current article that I believe got here out that mentioned that they had been principally scaly and only some had been feathers. What are your ideas on how dinosaurs seemed?

Pete Larson: Nicely, we now have to go to the proof we now have. And theropod dinosaurs, in all probability most of them had feathers, if not by way of their total life, definitely after they had been younger. Feather happened by way of insulation, had been helpful for insulation. It simply turned out that the construction was additionally conducive to flight. I imply [LAUGHTER]—Flight feathers aren’t earlier issues. We’re—I’m really working proper now on a venture that [INAUDIBLE] Manchester College has joined now with [INAUDIBLE] Heart the place we’re chemistry over the floor space over the precise ingredient. Elemental distribution over the floor space of fossils that we’re scanning within the synchrotron there and excessive vitality X-rays. And so we’re really in a position to map distribution of components throughout the face of the fossil. This has allowed us to publish on colour of feathers and the colour of pores and skin in sure situations and show that the textures or—How am I making an attempt to say?—What we see as interns of three-dimensiality of the fossils within the microscopic degree the place it appeared that [INAUDIBLE] had been preserved, however they seemed like fashionable [INAUDIBLE]. And we had been in a position to show that they really are. And so that really—Along with the work that we now have performed on colours simply utilizing this, it additionally bolsters work by different scientists who’re engaged on that very same factor. Now, Ordovician dinosaurs and Saurischian dinosaurs are fairly separated from one another, and so—The one occasion we now have of [INAUDIBLE] having one thing that may resemble feathers is a specimen of psittacosaurus in China. That Psittacosaurus is a relative of the Ceratopsian dinosaurs, so it’s associated to Triceratops. That Psittacosaur that’s preserved there has on its again—It has a pleasant pores and skin preservation, however it has apparently a rising out of little bumps on the [cult?] scales which—I suppose, scales, typicals, no matter you wish to name it, are these lengthy [hair?]-like projections. We used that—We discovered the primary triceratops pores and skin and whereas we now have portion of the pores and skin on your complete physique of the animal represented—That specimen initially in Houston, in Pure Science now—We now have lots of the pores and skin right here as a result of we’re nonetheless it, nonetheless working [INAUDIBLE]. However the pores and skin—That pores and skin had these bumps or nearly nipple-like projections from the highest floor of a number of the scales. And so trying on the Psittacosaurus and looking out again on the TriceratopsTriceratops may have really had nearly wheel-like projections popping out which they may have been in a position to increase with the muscle mass of their pores and skin to make them look bigger to thrust back T-Rex. As a result of clearly we solely discover partial skeletons ofTriceratops,Triceratops was fairly tasty. Anyway, it’s—The extra we, the specialists, [INAUDIBLE]. One other factor, there’s extra pores and skin and extra dinosaurs than what anyone ever thought attainable. Folks clear it away, they don’t acknowledge that it’s there. That smooth tissue additionally, that—The envelope of pores and skin in all probability preserves some muscle tendon and ligament proof that we don’t but have the power to establish. We’re shut. I believe that what we’re doing is one thing that may be capable to be used for that. That’ll be a part of our means of discovering utilizing the synchrotron and high-energy X-ray to map the weather. That may assist us to do the largest skeletons to find these [INAUDIBLE]. However seeing them by eye, you’re simply lacking them as a result of they’re a part of the material of the matrix of the rock they’re buried in now. And so I believe, as time goes on, that’s one of many actually thrilling areas is smooth tissue preservation is much, far larger than what we ever thought. And preservation of biomolecules. We did the [INAUDIBLE] cells additionally. Very, very a lot—Far more of that’s current than what we ever thought attainable.

Sabrina: It simply looks like paleontology—All this superior stuff, and such as you mentioned, sort of get to be like just a little child. However there additionally appears to be lots of controversy—With the bone wars, after which I simply examine Tinker the T-Rex, and naturally what occurred with Sue. However your ardour may be very apparent. And it’s actually cool to speak to you about these things and I’m simply questioning what drives you to maintain on learning it regardless of all of the battles and controversies.

Pete Larson: Nicely, I’m not going to let any person’s unhealthy habits spoil my life [LAUGHTER]. I’m going to maintain on doing what I like to do and nobody’s going to cease me. There’s—Simply to your data—There’s one—There’s a film that’s premiering really Thursday at [INAUDIBLE]—Documentary on [INAUDIBLE] Sue known as Dinosaur 13. That sort of—In order for you—Should you get an opportunity to see that—There’s additionally—We now have—One in all my ex-wives and I—A guide known as Rex Enchantment. That’ll inform you the entire mess about what occurred. It’s an fascinating story. However I’ve—I’m in all probability the luckiest individual within the universe, I get to do what I like, and I’ve every kind of people that care about me and assist what we do, together with individuals in museums everywhere in the world.

Sabrina: Do you’ve gotten any recommendation for people who find themselves amateurs keen on paleontology?

Pete Larson: Nicely, I suppose, pursue your loves. If you are interested in paleontology, then you must attempt to discover a means that you could—So as to do it. Is there a chance of accumulating in your space, are there museums in your space that you might do some volunteering at, or are there books that you just’d wish to—Test and see what books can be found. There’s great books on paleontology, now some actually incredible dinosaur—Books on dinosaurs and that form of factor which are there for the entire gamut of how far you might be as an beginner, whether or not you’re a six-year-old who simply picked up your first fossil otherwise you’re 89 years outdated and simply wish to learn one thing about dinosaurs however don’t actually wish to go within the area [LAUGHTER] and all the pieces in between. So I’d advocate if there’s one thing that you just like to do, you must attempt to do it, whether or not you are able to do it as a passion or as a occupation, that’s as much as you. However you must attempt to—Life is brief. Life is admittedly, actually brief. So do enjoyable stuff.

Sabrina: It’s very good. Thanks a lot. It was nice speaking to you.

Pete Larson: It’s very good to satisfy you over the cellphone.

Sabrina: Yeah. Good to satisfy you, too.

Garret: Pete Larson’s story of how he found Sue together with a number of different paleontologists is printed within the story Dinosaur 13 which was lately launched in theaters and it particulars your complete excavation course of, the federal authorities seizure of Sue which is complete one other story and the ten years lengthy authorized battle, how Black Hills got here collectively, town of Black Hills that’s, got here collectively to struggle for her and the way Pete Larson finally ended up in jail, sadly.

Sabrina: And since this podcast has been specializing in Tyrannosaurus Rex we got here up with a listing of fascinating details that you could be or you might not find out about this big dinosaur.

Garret:  So, beginning out merely, lots of people know Tyrannosaurus Rex means tyrant lizard in historic Greek and that clearly comes from a time that we nonetheless thought that dinosaurs had been lizards and they’re really, for people who don’t know, thought of reptiles as a result of reptiles aren’t particular to a species or household. It has to do with how they give the impression of being and the way they act, so birds and never avian dinosaurs will also be thought of reptiles together with lizards. It’s a totally different sort of classification.

Sabrina: T-rex lived throughout the late Cretaceous interval they usually had been among the many final non-avian dinosaurs earlier than the nice extinction. They lived in western North America on the time it was an island continent known as Laramidia, one of many largest identified land predators.

Garret: They had been 40 ft in size, 13 ft tall on the hips they usually weighed about 6.8 metric tons. As Pete Larson talked about within the interview lots of scientists now assume that it was a predator and a scavenger as a result of if we glance in fashionable animals you will note that the actual massive predators don’t essentially must hunt for his or her meals, if one thing smaller kills it they usually simply wish to go eat it they usually can simply come up and take it, which takes lots of much less vitality than making an attempt to exit and hunt for all of your meals. In case you are massive and scary you might simply take from the little guys, so that’s in all probability what T-Rex did. It wouldn’t have made lots of sense for him to do all that searching by himself and you realize I’m saying he’s imply.

Sabrina: T-Rex is estimated to be able to exerting one of many largest chew forces amongst the entire terrestrial animals. Scientists used to assume T-Rex walked upright and dragged its tail trying like a residing tripod and in 1915, satisfied that T-Rex stood upright, Henry Fairfield Osborne, the previous president of the America Museum of Pure Historical past in New York, additional bolstered this notion by unveiling the primary full Tyrannosaurus Rex skeleton organized strolling upright. And it stood in its upright pose for 77 years till it was lastly dismantled in 1992 and put within the right place.

Garret: I all the time consider Barney and a few of this others “cartoony” dinosaurs after they speak about how T-Rex didn’t really rise up proper and you’ll nonetheless see depictions of the good people who don’t perceive dinosaurs with their upright place however once you take a better take a look at the hips of T-Rex you possibly can inform that he was arrange for strolling together with his physique parallel to the bottom which it was far more environment friendly. And on prime of that the mass of size of T-Rex, like we talked about 40 ft in size, whether it is standing upright the center has to pump tougher to get the blood as much as its head and different thinks making it harder to face up proper. So, standing parallel to the bottom is admittedly the way in which to go.

Sabrina: So, within the Jurassic Park films they received it proper the way in which they depicted how T-Rex stood with its tail of the bottom however one factor that they received improper was that the T-Rex would positively have been in a position to see you even in case you stood nonetheless.

Garret: T-rex had a big a part of its mind devoted to imaginative and prescient and he had wonderful binocular imaginative and prescient, each of its eyes face ahead in entrance of its head. So, the notion that it used odor prefer it did within the film to search out individuals or may solely see them in the event that they had been shifting it’s only for cinematic impact, actually. T-Rex shared the heightened sensory talents of [], heightened relative, speedy and coordinated eye and head actions in addition to an enhanced means to sense low frequency sounds that may enable a Tyrannosaurus to trace prey actions from lengthy distances.

Sabrina: They did have an enhanced sense of odor, it could have been similar to the fashionable vultures which you ship to trace carcasses for scavenging. And analysis on the outdated manufacturing unit bulbs present that Tyrannosaurus Rex had probably the most extremely developed sense of odor of 21 sampled non avian dinosaurs’ species.

Garret:  One very fascinating factor to me is how predators vs. herbivores would increase their younger. There may be lots of proof to indicate that herbivores sort of raised their younger the way in which see turtles did, in case you have ever seen these movies, the place they go they lay a bunch of eggs they usually sort of run away. I believe that’s extreme however as soon as they’re hatched they’re just about on their very own. It’s sort of a numbers recreation the place you attempt to have as many youngsters as attainable hoping that the species continues. So, Tyrannosaurus Rex, there may be lots of proof to indicate that they might increase only one younger, train them all the pieces they knew about how you can hunt and lift them from a younger age up till they’ll hunt on their very own. They usually needed to defend their younger as nicely from herbivores and different animals that may see them as a risk and would wish to kill them off. So, in an actual bizarre means T-Rex was a extra nurturing mother or father than lots of herbivores would have been on the time. So, going together with their nurturing, parenting habits in addition they might have fought in packs or hunted in packs, clearly these sort of go hand in hand if you understand how to lift your younger and work together with different generations you would possibly as nicely work collectively to make issues simpler for you on a hunt.

Sabrina:  And T-Rex in all probability additionally had feathers, at the least on components of its physique.

Garret: Yeah, once we had been in Dinosaur Nationwide Monument, which is that this actually neat museum that spans the Colorado-Utah border, they’ve a pair factors the place they speak about dinosaurs with feathers and I wish to think about the T-Rex being coated in black feathers and looking out like a large evil raven or one thing like that. And I can think about that being far more terrifying with its ruffled feathers and looking out that a lot larger than if it was only a scaly, inexperienced creature.

Sabrina: It could be terrifying.

Garret: And the enjoyable truth of the day is the time between when a Stegosaurus roam the Earth and when a T-Rex roamed the Earth is definitely longer between when the T-Rex roamed the Earth and right this moment. So, to place in one other means dinosaurs have round for a time interval longer than dinosaurs went extinct to right this moment. So, should individuals know that people are just a bit blip on the geological time scale, however dinosaurs really took a reasonably large chunk, they had been so dominant for such a very long time and so nicely tailored. It is rather very superb and it all the time jogs my memory too of those films the place you see the Stegosaurus and you realize, Brachiosaurus and the Tyrannosaurus and all these dinosaurs as in the event that they had been throughout on the similar time. And also you would possibly as nicely simply throw some people in there as a result of that may make about as a lot sense.

On that be aware this concludes our first episode of I Know Dino. You possibly can be taught extra about dinosaurs’ at our web site: iknowdino.com.

Sabrina:  And be a part of us for a future broadcast, we now have different interviews with some actually fascinating paleontologists.

Garret:  We’re planning on releasing extra episodes bi-weekly, however we’ll se how issues go, possibly extra typically, possibly much less typically, is probably not our common schedule. However thanks for listening and we’ll speak to you quickly.

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