I Know Dino Podcast Present Notes: Gryposaurus (Episode 131)

Episode 131 is all about Gryposaurus a saurolophine with a slender, arching nasal hump, that some have described as like a “Roman nostril.”

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On this episode, we talk about:


  • Michael Crichton’s latest ebook Dragon Tooth is now on sale
  • Lucianovenator, a new early coelophysoid from Argentina, was described together with a sculpture that measures 2.4m (8 ft) lengthy
  • Early dinosaurs could have benefited from wings through prolonged hops earlier than they may fly in accordance with AAAS
  • Two new dinosaur tracksites within the Sichuan Basin, China fashioned from pure casts described in Historic Biology
    • 20 sauropod tracks in a close-by formation from the early Jurassic have been additionally described in Historic Biology
  • Paleontologists lastly discovered a Eolambia that wasn’t largely eaten or in any other case scattered in Utah in accordance with PLOS One
  • Maxillae (higher jaw) fragments from Portugal inform us extra in regards to the probably vary of Torvosaurus gurneyi within the Journal of Iberian Geology
  • A brand new spinosaurid tooth was discovered close to Tokyo marking the second spinosaurid tooth ever present in Japan
  • The but unnamed “Sibirosaurus” is estimated at 100 million years previous and got here from a cliff in the Kemerovo area in Russia
  • MENAFN has written an ideal abstract of fossil searching in Africa, courting again to 21,000 years in the past when an elephant tooth was collected
  • Dinosaur Isle Museum celebrated Rev. William Fox by naming a strolling path after him that he probably used
  • The Nationwide Museum in Cardiff, Wales has a brand new exhibit about Dinosaur Infants and celebrated with a large pile of “dinosaur” poop on the town
  • The Manitoba Museum in Canada has a brand new exhibit “World of Dinosaurs” that features dinosaurs that may urinate and fart
  • An unlimited fiberglass Brontosaurus in Northern Territory, Australia could also be going to a brand new dwelling
  • Romanus Data has pressed items of dinosaur bones into their information
  • A lady in South Carolina dressed up in an inflatable T. rex costume, scared two horses pulling a carriage of vacationers, and was arrested
  • Dr. William Hammer, lead writer on the invention of the Antarctican dinosaur Cryolophosaurus ellioti is retiring

The dinosaur of the day: Gryposaurus

  • Identify means “hooked nostril lizard”, typically it’s been translated as “griffin lizard”
  • Lambe was referencing the nasal arch, which resembled a gryphin (for the title “hooked beak”)
  • Had a slender, arching nasal hump, that some have described as like a “Roman nostril”
  • The time period “gryposaur” is typically used to hadrosaurs with nasal arches
  • Lived within the Late Cretaceous in North America
  • Present in Dinosaur Park Formation in Alberta, Canada, Two Drugs Formation in Montana, and Kaiparowits Formation in Utah
  • Just like Kritosaurus, and for some time it was thought they have been synonyms (lengthy historical past)
  • First fossils have been collected in 1913 by George Sternberg, from Dinosaur Park Formation in Alberta. Discovered a cranium and partial skeleton
  • A number of skulls, some skeletons, and a few pores and skin impressions have been discovered
  • Lawrence Lambe described Gryposaurus in 1914
  • A number of years earlier than the Gryposaurus discover, in 1910, Barnum Brown had discovered and described a partial cranium from New Mexico, and referred to as it Kritosaurus navajovius
  • Brown’s specimen didn’t have a snout, so he restored it based mostly on Anatotian (now Edmontosaurus), which had a flat-head
  • Lambe described Gryposaurus in another way (centered on the nasal crest), and in 1916 the Kritosaurus cranium was remade to have the nasal arch. Barnum Brown and Charles Gilmore urged the 2 have been synonyms
  • This influenced William Park’s resolution to call a virtually full skeleton present in Dinosaur Park Formation Kritosaurus incurvimanus, as a substitute of Gryposaurus incurvimanus (and he let Gryposaurus notabilis keep as its personal genus)
  • Parks thought of Gryposaurus to be a junior synonym of Kritosaurus
  • Exhausting to match Kritosaurus incurvimanus and Gryposaurus notabilis as a result of Kritosaurus incruvimanus is lacking a part of the entrance of the cranium, so we don’t see the total nasal arch
  • Kritosaurus is simply recognized from partial remians and appear similar to Gryposaurus (besides it lived slightly later than Gryposaurus, based mostly on the marginally youthful formation the place it was discovered)
  • In 1942, Lull and Wright revealed a monograph on hadrosaurs and stated Kritosaurus and Gryposaurus have been the identical
  • However within the Nineties some scientists questioned Kritosaurus navajovius (restricted materials in comparison with different hadrosaurs), so some assume the 2 genera are totally different
  • Some scientists, resembling Jack Horner, have urged that Hadrosaurus is similar as Gryposaurus and Kritosaurus. This was a typical speculation within the Seventies and 80s. However in 1990 Jack Horner modified his thoughts and stated Gryposaurus was its personal genera. Most scientists now assume that Hadrosaurus and Gryposaurus have variations of their higher arms and iliums
  • Horner described the specimens of a second species, Gryposaurus This based mostly based mostly on two elements of skeleton that was collected in 1916 for AMNH (additionally there was bonebed materials)
  • Three legitimate species: Gryposaurus notabilis, Gryposaurus latidens, Gryposaurus monumentensis (although might be 4-5, relying on who you ask)
  • Kind species is Gryposaurus notabilis
  • Gryposaurus latidens has a casual title, Hadrosauravus, that was used early on (now not used)
  • There’s a potential fourth Gryposaurus species, Gryposaurus alsatei, discovered within the Javelina Formation
  • Stephanosaurus marginatus was as soon as thought of to be a potential Kritosaurus species (when Kritosaurus and Gryposaurus have been thought of synonymous), however now it’s thought of to be doubtful
  • Jack Horner additionally created the brand new mixture of Gryposaurus incurvimanus
  • Gryposaurus has been present in numerous locations together with Alberta, Utah, Montana, and probably Texas, so it had a big geographical vary
  • Gryposaurus lasted for a minimum of 5 million years, which is lots longer than most different taxon in Hadrosauridae (besides Edmontosaurus)
  • Gryposaurus latidens is from the decrease Two Drugs Formation in Montana, and lived about 4 million years earlier than different Gryposaurus species appeared ( notabilis and G. incurvimanus), G. monumentensis is about 1-2 million years youthful than G. notabilis and G. incurvimanus
  • Gryposaurus mounmentensis was named in 2007, by Pure Historical past Museum of Utah paleontologists. Scott Sampson referred to as it the “Arnold Schwarznegger of duck-billed dinosaurs”
  • Fossils present in Utah, a cranium and partial skeleton, have been named Gryposaurus monumentensis (present in Grant Staircase-Escalante Nationwide Monument). Had a sturdy cranium
  • Researchers first discovered Gryposaurus monumentensis in 2003
  • Gryposaurus monumentensis had thick bones in its cranium and limbs
  • Gryposaurus monumentensis had large jaws, so it might eat robust planet materials
  • Gryposaurus monumentensis had 300 tooth in its mouth for consuming, nevertheless it had numerous substitute tooth, so at any time it could have had greater than 800 tooth
  • Gryposaurus was bipedal and quadrupedal
  • Ate a wide range of crops, and will eat meals on the bottom and as much as 13 ft (4 m) off the bottom
  • Floor its meals (just like chewing)
  • Cropped vegetation with its beak, and had cheek-like organ to maintain meals in its mouth
  • As Gryposaurus grew, its nasal arch received greater
  • The arch was over an enlarged nasal opening, which can have held smooth tissue
  • Nasal arch was most likely coated by thick, keratinized pores and skin, or had a cartilaginous extension
  • Nasal arch could have been for preventing one another, or for species or sexual dimorphism
  • Nasal arch might also have been used to assist push or butt in contests, and it could have had inflatable air sacs (visible and audio indicators)
  • About 30 ft (9 m) lengthy, although one species
  • Had scales alongside the midline of its again
  • Had pyramidal and ridged scales
  • Saurolophine hadrosaurid (subfamily with hole crests on their heads)
  • Gryposaurus was for some time thought of to be a hadrosaurine, however then Hadrosaurus was discovered to be totally different from different dinosaurs labeled as hadrosaurines. Then Hadrosaurus was given a spot beneath Hadrosauridae, however hadrosaurinae might now not be used as a result of it didn’t embody Hadrosaurus. So the subsequent oldest genus in that group, Saurolophus, becuase the sort genus of Saurolophinae, and now Gryposaurus is taken into account to be a saurolophine
  • Most likely lived on a floodplain with swamps, ponds, lakes, in a moist and humid local weather
  • Might have most well-liked being by the river
  • Different dinosaurs that lived in the identical time and place embody Centrosaurus and Corythosaurus, dromaeosaurids, troodontids, ornithomimids, ankylosaurids, tyrannosaurids (Albertosaurus and Teratophoneus), Parasaurolophus, ceratopsians resembling Utahceratops and Nasutoceratops, and oviraptorosaurians resembling Hagryphus
  • Additionally lived amongst sharks and rays, frogs, salamanders, turtles, lizards, crocodilians, and early mammals (marsupials and insectivorans)
  • The place Gryposaurus lived was a comparatively small space, and there have been different hadrosaur species round on the identical time and place. But, they didn’t appear to intermingle, and it’s unclear why (since there have been no recognized bodily obstacles, like mountains, to get of their manner). It’s additionally not clear how such a comparatively small space assist so many giant herbivores. One speculation is that hadrosaurs and different giant herbivores had slower metabolisms, or possibly there have been a big quantities of crops to eat, or the local weather within the space, often called “West America” diversified throughout latitudes, so crops in several areas would have been totally different, and that’s why dinosaurs could not have blended

Enjoyable Reality:

Japan was linked to the remainder of Laurasia for the complete Mesozoic, so dinosaurs might come and go freely

  • Transient historical past summarized from Origins of the Japanese Islands: The New “BigPicture”  By Gina L Barnes Revealed in Japan Evaluation:
    • “for 97% of its existence Japan was not an island”
    • First “Japanese” metamorphic rock ~590Ma within the Cambrian (mainly bugs, crops)
    • First dinosaurs ~230–240Ma
    • Volcanoes began popping up 146Ma
    • Cretaceous, nonetheless caught to the remainder of Asia
    • Japan sea fashioned between 15–19Ma
      • However elements have been nonetheless linked periodically as not too long ago as 11,000 years in the past
    • The primary Mount Fuji didn’t type till 2Ma at the latest
      • Mount Fuji we all know as we speak fashioned about 10,000 years in the past
        • If 230Ma to as we speak was represented as 1 day
          • present Mount Fuji could be round for the final 4 seconds
          • Japan could be an island for possibly 1.5 hours


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