- Dinosaur

Episode 438: What Triassic dinosaurs ate

Episode 438: What Triassic dinosaurs ate. Plus a brand new Torosaurus specimen, a brand new spinosaurid discover that features arms, and we join dinosaurs to Emmy Noether


  • The earliest dinosaurs had stunning diets supply
  • Ornithischians advanced to eat vegetation in many alternative methods supply
  • A brand new Torosaurus specimen has been discovered supply
  • Scientists have found a brand new spinosaurid supply
  • The Pure Historical past Museum in London lately found an agate crystal in its collections is a titanosaur egg supply
  • Crystal Palace Dinosaurs lately acquired extra funding supply
  • Filmmaker Danny Donahue made a brief sci-fi movie referred to as Hell Creek supply


You possibly can dig up actual dinosaur bones this summer time with Colorado Northwestern Neighborhood School! Be a part of them for a two week immersive area paleontology expertise digging up dinosaur bones from the Jurassic interval in Northwest Colorado. There are two scheduled digs: Might 27–June 11 and July 1–July 16. There are additionally two concurrent immersive lab strategies packages obtainable. Get all the main points and register on-line at cncc.edu/dinodig

The dinosaur of the day: Mymoorapelta

  • Nodosaurid ankylosaur that lived within the Late Jurassic in what’s now Colorado and Utah, U.S. (Morrison Formation)
  • Nodosaurids don’t have tail golf equipment
  • Appears to be like just like Nodosaurus, closely armored and coated in scutes, with spikes popping out of its sides,
  • Walked on all fours, had a protracted tail, low to the bottom, small elongated head
  • Estimated to develop as much as 9.8 ft (3 m) lengthy
  • Estimated to weigh between about 660 and 1230 lb (about 300 to 560 kg)
  • Smallest recognized four-legged dinosaur from the Morrison Formation and one of many smallest ankylosaurs
  • Cranium hasn’t been described intimately however seems just like Gargoyleosaurus, which can be from the Morrison Formation
  • Gargoyleosaurus was named in 1988
  • Had a slim snout, and triangular cranium
  • Had two giant horns on the forehead and two horns on the cheek
  • Had small, leaf-shaped enamel
  • Had 13 ribs and 4 sacral ribs (rib-like buildings across the sacrum, which is related to the pelvis)
  • Had brief limbs
  • “The proportions of the ulna and ilium in Mymoorapelta counsel it had a stance paying homage to that noticed in stegosaurs with its excessive slim hips and brief highly effective forelimbs”, in keeping with Kirkland and Carpenter, who named the dinosaur
  • Had a considerably versatile tail (extra versatile than ankylosaurid tails that have been strongly fused)
  • Tail vertebrae have been longer than they have been vast
  • Had spikes on the tail
  • Tail might have been for protection or for preventing different nodosaurids
  • Had giant spiky osteoderms on its sides and again
  • 5 armor sorts discovered: lengthy spines with a hole base and a protracted groove up the facet; skinny, triangular plates with a slim, uneven hole base; small bladelike spines with a rounded, strong base; remoted, flat scutes; and scutes fused right into a single sheet of armor
  • Giant backbone most likely was on the base of the neck and pointed outward
  • Skinny triangular plates have been most likely connected decrease down the physique and to the tail
  • A part of the sacral defend preserved, together with a small piece of armor that has one giant osteoderm surrounded by smaller osteoderms and appears flower-like
  • Had keeled osteoderms, or bosses, and elevated knobs as nicely on the sacral defend
  • Again and tail was coated in small osteoderms in between bigger plates of armor (based mostly on comparisons to Sauropelta)
  • Lived in a semiarid atmosphere with moist and dry seasons, and had floodplains
  • Had a excessive relative chunk drive, based mostly on its jaw joint
  • In all probability a low browser and possibly a selective feeder due to its slim snout
  • In all probability ate cycads and conifers
  • Sort and solely species: Mymoorapelta maysi
  • Described by Jim Kirkland and Kenneth Carpenter in 1994
  • Genus title means “Mygatt’s defend”
  • Named in honor of Vannetta Moore and Pete and Marilyn Mygatt, who discovered the Mygatt-Moore Quarry the place the fossils have been discovered
  • Species title is in honor of Chris Mays, president of the Dinamation Worldwide Company and Society, who funded excavating the quarry
  • Quarry web site present in March 1981 by Peter Marilyn Mygatt and John D. and Vanetta Moore “whereas on an tour within the excessive desert of western Colorado”, in keeping with Kirkland and Carpenter
  • Fossils first present in 1990
  • Quarry is “interpreted as an attritional accumulation of considerable dinosaur stays at a everlasting water gap,” in keeping with Kirkland and Carpenter
  • Might be animals have been killed coming down the water gap to drink, animals died of thirst or/and hunger on the water gap throughout drought, or animals grew to become trapped within the mud alongside the margin of the water gap when searching for water throughout dry intervals when the water gap was small
  • A lot of proof of scavenging and/or subsequent trampling, so any particular explanation for loss of life for any explicit animal is unclear
  • Mymoorapelta is the third most typical dinosaur within the Mygatt-Moore Quarry (Allosaurus is the most typical, then Apatosaurus)
  • First recognized Late Jurassic ankylosaur from North America, and one of many earliest recognized nodosaurids
  • Holotype features a left hip bone (with bitemarks), vertebrae, ribs, limb bones, and plenty of osteoderms
  • Fused vertebral column, so holotype is taken into account to be an grownup
  • “Though it’s apparent the animal was fed upon, it can’t be decided if the animal was killed by a predator or just scavenged”, in keeping with Kirkland and Carpenter
  • Chew marks discovered on Mymoorapelta could also be from a really giant Allosaurus (unusually giant), or another giant carnivorous dinosaur
  • Over 160 bones have been discovered, and so they have been scattered over 27 yards (25 m) of the 1600 sq ft (150 sq m) quarry
  • Though disarticulated, “one of the vital full Jurassic ankylosaurids described so far” and “the smallest grownup, quadrupedal dinosaur but recognized within the Morrison Formation”, in keeping with Kirkland and Carpenter
  • Additionally discovered a small dinosaur egg (lower than 4 in or 10 cm in diameter) with “distinctive ornithischian-style microstructure). Egg was related to the ankylosaur
  • As a result of no different ornithischians are recognized from the quarry, and not one of the saurischian dinosaurs (apart from possibly a small theropod) from the world have been sufficiently small to have laid such a small egg, Kirkland and Carpenter wrote: “we suspect that egg might have been aborted on the loss of life of the ankylosaur. Though speculative, if the egg belongs to the ankylosaur, it means that the loss of life of the animal might have been sudden, maybe by the animal being trapped within the mud after which killed or a minimum of scavenged”
  • Kirkland and others referred a partial skeleton to Mymoorapelta in 1998, present in Cactus Park, Colorado (fossil was nonetheless being ready at the moment)
  • Partial skeleton included vertebrae, chevrons (from below the tail vertebrae), sacrum (a part of the pelvis), and plenty of armor, together with components of the sacral defend that coated the highest of the pelvis
  • Extra bones have been discovered on the quarry since, together with a virtually full cranium, and practically all components of the physique besides the pubis and femur (a hip bone and leg bone)
  • Fossils are on the Dinosaur Journey Museum of Western Colorado in Fruita, Colorado
  • One other specimen was discovered close to Hanksville, Utah which incorporates extra osteoderms, ribs, a vertebra, and femur
  • One other Mymoorapelta specimen was present in 2014, within the Hanksville-Burpee Quarry, which is a “sauropod-dominated bonebed” in keeping with Katie Tremaine and others
  • Eight recognized specimens of Mymoorapelta, and 4 of them present in sauropod localities
  • Different dinosaurs that lived across the similar time and place embrace Apatosaurus, Allosaurus, Ceratosaurus, and probably Nanosaurus
  • Different animals that lived across the similar time and place embrace plenty of snails and fish

Enjoyable Truth:

You possibly can go to rivers on Earth that dinosaurs as soon as swam in, fished in, and drank from.

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