A Discipline Information Assessment Doubleheader – 10,000 Birds

Two books, two authors, two nations bursting with neotropical avian variety. Birds of Belize by Steve N. G. Howell and Dale Dyer and Birds of Costa Rica by Dale Dyer and Steve N. G. Howell joined the sector information roster this spring, very welcome in a yr sadly sparse in new titles. For the reason that books share authors and a creation course of, I assumed I might evaluate them collectively. Each titles are superlative guides to 2 well-liked birding locations, that includes detailed but succinct up-to-date descriptions, magical scientific illustrations, and the well-crafted organizational options by now anticipated from Howell, one in all our most prolific hen guide writers and a vocal proponent of user-friendly guides. But additionally they deliver up questions, which I’m going to speak about proper now earlier than diving into the specifics of the guides themselves.

Two points got here to thoughts instantly once I examined my reviewer copies. The primary is that the illustrations by Dale Dyer are based mostly, and largely appear to be the identical, because the illustrations for his earlier information Birds of Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama (co-authored with Andrew Vallely, PUP, 2018). It’s not clear how lots of the plates have been touched up, redrawn or are new, and I hope we’ll be taught extra in regards to the course of, maybe when the third guide within the sequence by Howell and Dyer, a brand new information to the birds of Mexico, is printed.* An related problem is that the Belize and Costa Rica guides share lots of the identical descriptions of species, written by Howell.

Why are these points? I feel as a result of we, or at the least I, have a fantasy of each area information being created distinctive and new, that once I gently raise the quilt a brand new information, I’ll discover treasures we’ve by no means seen earlier than. Fantasy is the important thing phrase right here. If we would like new area guides, we have to admit that it’s not economically or humanly doable to attract and paint a brand new Clay-colored Thrush for every title. Doing this work takes time! Dale Dyer put in years engaged on his work for Birds of Central America, each within the area and within the museum. I don’t suppose scientific art work holds much less worth when used greater than as soon as. Equally, descriptions of species repeated throughout volumes don’t lose their accuracy with every publication. Steve Howell has spent many years of expertise within the area learning the birds of Belize, Costa Rica, and particularly Mexico. There is no such thing as a cause experience and expertise can’t be shared throughout area guides when the books are printed shut collectively, like these are. I feel we do have the precise to anticipate that art work and species descriptions when repeated are present, mirror latest research and taxonomic thought. And I feel these guides do, that the authors should not simply rubber-stamping their work however have sought to ensure the art work and textual content in every information represents the birds of every nation.

© 2023 by Steve N. G. Howell and Dale Dyer, Birds of Belize, “Genus Tringa, web page 56, from Princeton College webpage, https://press.princeton.edu/books/paperback/9780691220727/birds-of-belize

The second problem entails taxonomy. Howell makes use of the IOC World Hen Record (v.11.2, 2021) as his “baseline taxonomy” after which makes modifications, a lot of modifications. For oceanic birds he makes use of the taxonomy that he and Kirk Zufelt developed in Oceanic Birds of the World: A Photograph Information (PUP, 2019).  Different species are splits and lumped and have had their names modified. Not each hen. A lot of the names right here might be acquainted to the skilled Neotropical birder. However Howell has robust emotions about what makes a species and what proof helps splitting or lumping a species and he applies them, in some circumstances coining his personal frequent names. Tropical Kingbird is “Center American Kingbird,” based mostly on the concept good ol’ TK must be divided into three species based mostly on track, morphology, and plumage. Southern Lapwing is “Cayenne Lapwing,” cut up from “Chilean Lapwing.” Willet is listed as “Western Willet” and “Japanese Willet,” two separate species, one thing we’ve anticipated from the North American Classification Committee for a few years, however which has not but handed committee muster. American Herring Gull is “Smithsonian Gull,” a separate species from its European counterpart. And Sandwich Tern is Sandwich Tern, Howell discovering the DNA analysis for splitting it “weak.” These are just a few examples. The introductory part “Taxonomy” summarizes the authors’ strategy to this course of in each guides and prolonged appendix sections entitled “Taxonomic Notes,” clarify particular species modifications.

Why is that this a difficulty? Taxonomy and classification techniques for any space of information, not simply ornithology, are historically developed, written, and authorized by committees and networks of specialists with levels and titles of authority. I ought to know, as a librarian I used to be taught to worship classification techniques like LCC, the Library of Congress Classification system which divides information into 21 primary courses, and topic heading authority lists. In birding, we’ve a number of greater authorities–the AOS Guidelines of North and Center American Birds; the AOS Guidelines of South American Birds; the Clements classification system, which is the premise for eBird; the IOC World Hen Record; and the guidelines developed by Handbook of the Birds of the World and Birdlife Worldwide. And when writing a area information, it’s accepted observe to undertake one of many above and to stay to it, with any questions or disagreements safely ensconced within the textual content, not in an precise change of species.

Howell turns all that on its head. The idea of species, he states, “mainly comes right down to a matter of opinion, with no proper or unsuitable” (CR information, p. 30). And as for who has the authority to make taxonomic choices, he and Dyer argue of their associated article in North American Birds, “Costa Rica: Even Richer Than we Thought?”(a must-read for birders who might be utilizing these guides and who wish to know extra about their improvement) that “individuals who examine a area and are accustomed to its birds are sometimes higher positioned to make knowledgeable taxonomic choices than distant our bodies coping with a lot bigger geographic areas.”** Howell additionally states that there is no such thing as a higher place than a area information during which to introduce taxonomic modifications, one thing he’s been doing since he and Sophie Webb wrote their information to Mexico and Northern Central America within the 1990’s.*** It’s quicker than committee work, extra direct than paperwork, and it presents a clearer and extra full portrait of the vary and worth of the biodiversity of those nations. “We hope that drawing consideration to them [the splits] acts as a laxative on the taxonomic constipation manifested by some committees and speeds the speed at which ignorance and inertia fall sufferer to actuality” (CR information, p. 30).

These are convincing, neatly introduced arguments. However I can’t assist interested by the person birder utilizing these area guides, particularly a birder new to Neotropical birding. I feel it’s complicated to see Center American Kingbird within the area information however not in eBird. I don’t suppose it’s useful to have Herring Gull introduced as “Smithsonian (American Herring) Gull.” I don’t suppose each birder desires to take the time to learn taxonomic notes and take into consideration the 100-plus splits proposed by Howell and Dyer. (I’m not saying that is proper, I’m saying, as somebody skilled in utilizing reference books with folks in search of a selected reply, there’s a restrict in how a lot preparatory time they’re prepared to place in.) In presenting a area information with different taxonomy and names, the authors could also be jumpstarting “official” modifications in taxonomies and birding checklists, however they could even be incorporating obstacles in these books; area guides are speculated to be making birding and hen identification simpler, no more complicated.

I don’t suppose this can be a black-and-white problem and I’m hoping readers of this evaluate have their very own opinions that they’ll articulate right here or on ‘the socials.’ And maybe one other 10,000 Birds reviewer may have a distinct viewpoint.

Examples of two kinds of informational aids supplied in each guides: Pictorial Contents for Songbirds (Birds of Costa Rica) and Key to Species Vary Maps (Birds of Belize). Birds of Costa © 2023 by Steve N. G. Howell and Dale Dyer and Birds of Belize © 2023 by Steve N. G. Howell and Dale Dyer.

Protection & Group

Birds of Belize covers 540 or so species (I counted, the press launch says “over 500”) usually present in Belize, together with the islands of the barrier reef and marine waters about 30 miles out, the vary of a day journey. Along with species usually occurring in Belize, migrant and resident, the Species Accounts part additionally consists of a number of rarer occurring species. Some, like American Bittern, are allotted full accounts; others, like White-faced Ibis, are cited and drawn to differentiate them from similar-looking species (in some circumstances, as with White-faced Ibis, there’s a risk that they could have been neglected). Appendix A lists “Uncommon Migrants and Vagrants,” 81 species, together with birds for which there aren’t any documented data, however that are listed within the literature or eBird. For context, the IOC model 13.1 Guidelines for Belize lists 622 species in 76 households, of which 104 are uncommon or unintentional and 4 launched.

Birds of Costa Rica covers 836 usually occurring and a few rarer species discovered on the mainland, inshore islands, and waters about 30 miles out. “Offshore Guests, Uncommon Migrants, and Vagrants,” 103 species together with a number of seabird species, are listed in Appendix B. The birds of Cocos Island, an remoted, volcanic island with a wealthy hen life, are listed in one other Appendix part. That is spectacular protection of a rustic that boasts over 950 avian species (the IOC model 13.1 Guidelines lists 955 species in 86 households, with 152 uncommon/unintentional species, three extirpated species, 5 launched species, and 9 endemics).

The books are flexibound, with back and front flaps. The entrance flaps supply helpful keys to the species vary maps (see picture above), the again flaps supply all–too-brief bios of the authors (I need extra!). The within entrance covers are the beginning of four-page pictorial guides to hen households/teams and the pages the place they are often discovered, a fast, straightforward entry to the identification course of (see picture above). I notably like the way in which some hen households, like Antbirds and Tanagers, present groupings of a number of completely different species, representing the number of shapes and colours present in that household.

Entrance of the guide materials consists of: “Preface and Acknowledgements,” helpful for its abstract of the authors’ backgrounds in Belize and Costa Rica in addition to acknowledgement of earlier works; a succinct information on “How To Use This Guide” (please learn!); three drawings illustrating “Hen Topography;” a brief record of “Abbreviations and Some Phrases Defined;” a bit on habitat and local weather titled “Biogeography;” and the must-read feedback on “Taxonomy” (titled “Taxonomy and Names” within the Belize quantity although it’s mainly the identical essay however with out the quotation of the Birding article). The “Biogeography” sections are largely pictorial, that includes giant images. Within the Belize quantity, they have been taken by H. Lee Jones, creator of the earlier hen information to Belize. The few pages of textual content pack in a number of data on geographical location, formations, waterways, local weather, kinds of forest and wetland habitats and the birds prone to be present in them, however the textual content doesn’t relate to the images and the knowledge is a bit squashed collectively. Nation maps are separated out –political maps are within the “Methods to Use This Guide” part and geographical maps are within the “Biogeography.” I actually want they’d been duplicated within the again inside covers, that are clean.

Again of the guide sections embrace Appendices on “Uncommon Migrants and Vagrants;” “Taxonomic Notes;” and within the Costa Rica guide, a bit on “Cocos Island.” There may be additionally an inventory of “References” and an “Index of English Names.” These are fascinating decisions. The references are books the authors used to create the guides, a mixture of area guides, ornithological articles, and checklists, not a urged supply of studying for the birder utilizing the guide. I’m not saying that is good or dangerous, I do admire the cautious documentation of the taxonomic notes and different supplies. I’m shocked by the absence of a scientific title index, particularly in a world that’s advocating altering English names and by Howell’s personal use of different names for some species. Fortunately, all names–daring listed and different–are listed within the index; there are web page references for Smithsonian Gull and Herring Gull. I’m additionally very blissful that the index teams birds by “final title;” all of the trogons are below “Trogon,” all of the warblers whose title consists of “warbler” are below “Warbler” (Parulas, Redstarts, and Waterthrushes have their very own entries).

Measurement-wise, these books are of a dimension that may match effectively right into a backpack or a big vest or coat pocket. The Costa Rica guide is far thicker and heavier (extra birds!), and at about 2 kilos in weight is perhaps for a few of us a automotive guide moderately than a backpack guide.

B. Birds of Belize, art work by Dale Dyer, p. 195. © 2023 by Steve N. G. Howell and Dale Dyer

Species Accounts

Textual content on the left, illustrations on the precise. The Species Accounts comply with the ‘trendy information’ format, with illustrations clearly labeled and organized in species groupings. The Accounts make the most of the “user-friendly” area information sequence proposed in “The Goal of Discipline Guides: Taxonomy vs. Utility” by Howell and 5 different notable birding authors (Birding, 2009^). It begins with water and wading birds and ending with meadowlark, blackbird, and bobolink.^ No matter whether or not you suppose area information sequences ought to or shouldn’t mirror present evolutionary sequence, it’s comforting and straightforward to seek out falcons subsequent to hawks, vireos subsequent to warblers.

The textual content is remarkably straightforward to learn, thanks partially to a extremely readable font, color-banded household and genera sections, bolded and capitalized species names and part labels, and simply the correct quantity of house between species descriptions. Even pages that cowl 5 completely different species don’t appear crowded. Every household part begins with a short encapsulation of what sort of birds are in that household, their frequent traits and the variety of species in that specific nation; some genera descriptions are additionally given. That is notably useful for hen households that is perhaps new to birders. I do know I might have benefitted from studying the summaries on the Typical Antbird household (Thamnophilidae) and its member teams: Antshrikes (with stout, hooked payments), Antvireos (chunky birds with pretty stout payments, like vireos), Antwrens (small, arboreal birds with slender payments), and ‘Skilled’ Antbirds (“boldly patterned” antbirds which might be severe followers of military ants).

Every species account begins with the English title and scientific title. Plenty of consideration is positioned on names, reflecting the authors’ precedence on previous and present taxonomy. Alternate names are given in parentheses: Smithsonian (American Herring) Gull. Associated names are given in brackets: Lesson’s [Blue-crowned] Motmot. Bracket names embrace former names for species which were cut up (the Motmot) and different situations the place taxonomy is “unsure.” Measurement–size and typically wingspan–is given in centimeters. Subsequent is the part birders are most definitely to learn first, a abstract of the hen’s habitat, conduct, and figuring out options: the place and the way it’s prone to be seen (humid forest, fast-flowing streams, plantations, excessive, low, with combined flocks, alone and quiet), vital conduct (heard greater than seen, flushes, sallies for bugs, soars on flattish wings, flight fast and darting), and the best way to distinguish it from comparable birds within the space. This part additionally particulars vital plumage options for the grownup hen and for the juvenile and feminine is required.

Sound is subsequent: descriptions and transcriptions of vocalizations, together with cadence, repetitive sounds, and species that sound comparable. The Standing part is supposed for use with the distribution maps. The textual content signifies if the hen is a winter, summer season, or nonbreeding migrant (resident is the default standing) and at what elevation it’s prone to be discovered. The maps, that are positioned to the left of the textual content, are small and point out main seasonal standing–whether or not and the place the hen is a resident breeding species, seasonal breeding migrant, seasonal nonbreeding migrant, or transient migrant. Additionally they often present breeding colonies or remoted populations, doable occurrences, and instructions of vary growth.

I like the writing right here. It is rather particular and really detailed. There may be little room for a wise flip of phrase, however the exactitude of each sentence makes every account distinctive and relevant to hen identification within the area. Lengthy-billed Hermit is, “A spectacular if dull-plumaged hummer of humid forest understory…” (CR, p. 212). Bat Falcon is a “Good-looking small falcon of humid forest and edge, adjoining clearings, semi-open areas with scattered bushes and forest patches; domestically in cities, typically at Maya spoil websites” (Belize, p. 116). I used to be blissful to see that the outline within the Costa Rica information is comparable however drops the reference to Maya ruins, a element that tells me every information was rigorously curated for its nation. Keel-billed Toucan offers a “Loud throaty croak…at a distance feels like frogs…up shut has an ear-splitting, shrieking high quality” (CR, p. 200). Maybe the perfect examples of Howell’s experience at writing species descriptions are the pages on these brown rainforest look-alike birds, the Woodcreepers. He distinguishes every by consideration to foraging conduct, effective variations in invoice dimension and shade, and vocalization. Southern Noticed Woodcreeper has a “pretty stout straight invoice extensively darkish above” (p. 248), Northern Barred Woodcreeper has a “stout blackish invoice with pinkish base” (p. 246), whereas Ivory-billed Woodcreeper’ invoice is “not strikingly ivory-colored, typically dusky pale pinkish general, typically with a darkish maxilla” (p. 248).

[There is one error in the Belize guide which is pointed out by a user on the Amazon page: the images of White-whiskered Puffbird are reversed, with the female labelled male and male labelled female. This is corrected in the Costa Rica guide.]

Writer Steve N. G. Howell has a protracted record of hen and birding books to his credit score, a number of of which have been reviewed right here. Along with the already talked about A Information to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America, co-authored with Sophie Webb (1995) and Oceanic Birds of the World: a Photograph Information, co-authored with Kirk Zufelt (2019), his titles embrace Petrels, Albatrosses, and Storm-Petrels of North America: A Photographic Information (2012), A Reference Information to Gulls of the Americas (with Jon Dunn, 2007,  Molt in North American Birds (2010), Uncommon Birds of North America (with Ian Lewington and Will Russell, 2014), Offshore Sea Life ID Information: West Coast (with Brian L. Sullivan, 2015), Offshore Sea Life ID Information: East Coast (with Brian L. Sullivan, 2016), Birds of Chile: a Photograph Information (with Fabrice Schmitt, 2018), and Peterson Information To Hen Identification in 12 Steps (with Brian Sullivan, 2018). He has additionally printed many scientific articles on these matters in ornithological journals and articles and weblog posts on taxonomy, writing area guides, and birding for well-liked birding magazines and web sites. Howell has additionally been a hen tour chief with WINGS for a few years, the place he focuses on excursions of Mexico, Central American nations, and repositioning cruises.

C. Birds of Costa Rica, art work by Dale Dyer, p. 277. © 2023 by Steve N. G. Howell and Dale Dyer


The illustrations by Dale Dyer completely complement Howell’s descriptions. A birder in addition to a scientific illustrator specializing in birds, Dyer is a area affiliate on the American Museum of Pure Historical past and has contributed work and drawings to quite a few area guides, together with books on Puerto Rico, the West Indies, Brazil, Trinidad and Tobago, Peru, North America, and New York State. Dyer spent a few years engaged on these illustrations; the Preface notes that he visited Costa Rica and different Central American nations yearly between 2007 and 2016. He additionally utilized museum specimens and speaks eloquently in interviews and on his web page in regards to the significance on beginning every hen drawing with a examine of skins to grasp the construction and anatomy beneath the feathers.^^

Plenty of thought clearly went into the design in addition to the art work itself. Every plate illustrates two to 5 species, comparable to the textual content on the other web page. One to 4 photographs of every species are depicted, relying on the species; female and male Contingas are pictured within the examples above, White-rumped Sandpiper is proven in breeding, non-breeding, and juvenile plumages plus a picture of it in flight. All raptor and nightjar species are proven in flight, typically in a number of photographs, aside from the tropical forest accipiters and forest falcons (maybe as a result of they’re hardly ever seen?). All plumage variations are clearly labelled. Sometimes, we get behavioral vignettes just like the Central American Sharpbill above, probing a leaf cluster. Species are rigorously grouped on every plate so it’s straightforward to see which photographs are the identical species, and when two genera or households share the identical plate, Dyer very properly has them posing in reverse instructions so we all know they’re completely different.

The pictures themselves, other than their utility as identification aids, are merely lovely. They’ve been painted, I assume, with the watercolor/gouache methodology utilized in Dyer’s different works. Feathers glow with the subtlety of sample and shade of colours that distinguish hen life. Payments level, claws grip, eyes glower. Every particular person portray actually does appear to be a person hen. In my evaluate of Birds of Central America, I wrote that I assumed the colours have been washed out on some birds. I don’t suppose so with these volumes, and I’m unsure if my eyes have gotten accustomed to Dyers’ work or if there have been some modifications within the inking. The birds have been drawn and painted on backgrounds of various shades of grey/blue, gentle blue, peach, ecru, tan/brown, and so forth. This works properly to reinforce the inking and relieve the attention of regularly taking a look at a white background, and on one pleasant plate creates the energetic picture of standing egrets towards a pale greige background counterpointed with flying egrets and a juvenile Little Blue Heron flying towards a sky-blue background. The background does appear just a little too darkish on some plates, nonetheless, and although one can say this represents how the birds are seen at nighttime rainforest, it does make it troublesome to check the species in lower than brilliant gentle.

I assumed it might be fascinating to check how one species is painted and configured on the web page within the three books illustrated by Dyer and by two different area guides: The Birds of Costa Rica: A Discipline Information, 2nd ed., written by Richard Garrigues and illustrated by Robert Dean (Comstock, 2014) and Birds of Belize, written by H. Lee Jones and illustrated by Dana Gardner (Univ. of Texas Press, 2004). These symbolize, I feel, the sector guides used essentially the most typically earlier than publication of those volumes. I made a decision to have a look at depictions of Pretty Continga, a sought-after species in Belize and Costa Rica. Pretty Cotinga males are a spectacular blue and purple and the females are a spectacular brown and beige, so this can be a good method to see how the artists painting each ends of the hen “magnificence” scale. The plates for the 2023 guides are above, the others under.

A. Birds of Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, art work by Dale Dyer, p. 381. © 2018, Princeton College Press

D. Birds of Belize, art work by Dana Gardner, Plate 38. © 2003 textual content H. Lee Jones, © 2003 illustrations Dana Gardner

E. The Birds of Costa Rica: A Discipline Information, 2nd ed, pp. 260-261. © 2007, 2014 textual content Richard Garrigues, © 2007, 2014 illustrations Marc Roegiers and John Okay. McCuen

Dyer’s art work for the Birds of Central America information is completely reproduced within the Belize and Costa Rica volumes, right down to the little portrait of the male perched on a leafy department. The principle distinction is that “male” and “feminine” are spelled out. The illustration by Dana Gardner for the 2003 Belize information is extra shade blocked, much less refined, a very completely different fashion. The Pretty Cotingas illustrated by Robert Dean for the 2014 Costa Rica information are chunkier with rounder heads, additionally extra shade blocked. All good illustrations for area guides, but when I have been to place any of those photographs on my wall so I may admire the great thing about the hen, it might be Dyer’s.


Birds of Belize and Birds of Costa Rica are each spectacular, informative, well-organized area guides, distinguished by the experience, expertise, and abilities of their authors. Birders might have ideas about its use of different taxonomy, however I feel most vacationers might be blissful to have present guides to those well-liked nations. There’s a actual want for a brand new information for Belize. H. Lee Jones’ Birds of Belize is an efficient area information however organized with plates separate from species accounts, and loads has occurred within the birding world since 2004. The Peterson Discipline Information to Birds of Northern Central America by Jesse Fagan and Oliver Komar (2016) does cowl Belize, but additionally Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador.

Costa Rica, alternatively, has a wealthy ornithological guide historical past, together with the traditional A Information to the Birds of Costa Rica by F. Gary Stiles and Alexander F. Skutch (1989), an encyclopedic remedy nonetheless price learning. The really useful area information has lengthy been The Birds of Costa Rica: A Discipline Information, 2nd ed. by Richard Garrigues. I had an opportunity to make use of it in 2021 on a short journey to Costa Rica and came upon that even in lower than ten years, taxonomic modifications–many official splits and title modifications, together with the Motmot group–made quite a few its entries outdated. Nonetheless, the information was nonetheless very useable. It could be that we weren’t completely bereft of a good hen information to Costa Rica earlier than this area information got here out, and it’s true that we nonetheless lack guides to different Central American nations, like El Salvador and Guatamala. However it’s pretty to have this lovely information–each lovely guides–out there for examine, identification, and adoration of those unbelievable birds.

* The Mexico information as half of a bigger mission together with the Costa Rica information is cited in Howell, Steve N. G & Dale Dyer, “Costa Rica: Even Richer Than we Thought?,” North American Birds, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 22-29. Accessible to ABA members at https://www.aba.org/north-american-birds-vol-73-no-1/

** Howell, Steve N. G & Dale Dyer, “Costa Rica: Even Richer Than we Thought?,” North American Birds, vol. 73, no. 1, p. 22.

*** Howell, Steve N. G. & Sophie Webb, A Information to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America, Oxford Univ. Press, 1995

^Howell, Steve N.G., Brian Sullivan, Michael O’Brien, Chris Wooden, Ian Lewington, and Richard Crossley, “The Goal of Discipline Guides: Taxonomy vs. Utility,” Birding, Nov. 2009.

^^ See Dale Dyer’s web site, https://websites.google.com/web site/daledyerornithill/ and his interview in Angelo, Hillary, “Hen in Hand: How Expertise Makes Nature,” Idea and Society, vol. 42, no. 4 (July 2013), pp. 351-368.

Birds of Belize (Princeton Discipline Guides)
By Steve N. G. Howell and Dale Dyer
Princeton College Press, April 2023
Pages:304, Flexibound; Measurement: 5.25 x 8 in. x 1 in.; Weight: 1.25 kilos
Illus:  116 shade plates + 15 shade images. 600
ISBN-10 : 0691220727; ISBN-13 : 978-0691220727
Value: $35.00/£30.00 (reductions from the same old suspects); Kindle and eBook variations additionally out there

Birds of Costa Rica (Princeton Discipline Guides)
By Dale Dyer and Steve N. G. Howell
Princeton College Press, Might 2023
Pages:456, Flexibound; Measurement: 5.25 x 8 in. x 1.25 in.; Weight: 2.03 kilos
Illus: 203 shade plates. 19 shade images. 900+
ISBN-10 : 0691203350; ISBN-13 : 978-0691203355
Value:$29.95/£25.00 (reductions from the same old suspects); Kindle and eBook variations additionally out there

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